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What was it like to be in Vietnam during the war?

I arrived in July 1969. My khakis melted on the tarmac at the airport at Cam Rahn Bay. Welcome to Sunny Southeast Asia.As my fellow colleagues have shared, there was no standard. I was assigned to a mechanized infantry unit which meant we performed both mounted and dismounted patrols. We secured bridges, conducted highway sweeps, performed Thunder Runs, responded with Rapid Reactions or Quick Response, handled hamlet security at nights, and our Scouts (jeeps) provided convoy escort.In the Bong Son Plain (Binh Dinh Province) our mech unit was the rapid reaction for 173rd Airborne along with securing every bridge from LZ Low Boy all the way south to Bong Son. We conducted highway sweeps every morning looking for mines. We secured Tam Quan hamlet, which had been overrun several times in ’68 and ’69. So at night, often we ran Thunder Runs along Highway One between midnight and 2 AM random mornings (firing off both sides of the roads to discourage the NVA/VC). Envision a bunch of APCs going down the road in the dead of the morning at full blast with full guns blazings shooting into the jungle. The intention was to stop firing when we approach a hamlet. Most of the time we did—sometimes we weren’t as successful. It is is refreshing to watch .50 rounds and 7.62mm from M60s tear through trees, hutches, etc…brutal. Whoops! It was the roof. SORRY.Dismounted patrols sucked. Uncle Ruck (Rucksack) was Alice’s uncle since Alice wasn’t born until after Vietnam. The contents were varied based on short-term missions versus long-term. In other words, if you ‘humped the bush” for weeks straight with periodic resupply from a Huey, the contents were more significant than we did being mechanized infantry where most humps were short patrols.I was a RTO (05-Charlie which was a radio operator) in a mech infantry unit. I had been in a communications or signal battalion in Germany before being levied to Vietnam so I was well qualified on commo equipment (it eventually got me out of the field so I could become a privileged REMF).So, a 11 Bravo grunt (ground-pounder) might be looking at packing his ruck with: an average of about six OD green plastic canteens attached to their rucks and at least 1 metal canteen cup which was used for either heating food or water. Based on patrol length, we may also also carry a half dozen M26 or M61 grenades plus several bandoleers of M60 ammo. I seem to recall 6–8 magazines with 5.56 ammo for the M16. Sometimes we carried several boxes of unloaded cartridges to load if we got in a heavy firefight.As an experienced grenadier, in lieu of the M16 crap, I carried a M-79 grenade launcher (thumper or blooper) so I had to pack a compliment of HE rounds, flares, a few canister rounds and several smoke (40mm) rounds, a few Willie Petes (White Phosphorus). I wrote about this in a separate Quora response. I loved that thumper. I was good with it and could pop some serious dead direct 40 mike-mike rounds.We carried several pair of dry socks (worth their weight in gold—especially during Monsoon season). I don’t recall a bayonet but maybe. Also insect repellent was essential and if you smoked (I did) several packs of cigarettes and a Zippo in a plastic bag. Of course TP—precious.Since I was an RTO (radio operator), I had to pack several extra batteries and a number 2 pencil (used eraser to clean battery terminals) for PRC-25 radio backpack. I also had to pack a collapsible whip antenna. We also packed C-Rations or LRRPs (dehydrated meals—the forerunner of MREs). LRRPs were heated with water in a canteen cup heated over a makeshift fire or a piece of C4 removed from a Claymore mine.We also packed several Claymore anti-personnel mines (M18s) and a clacker (igniter). You also carried letter writing stuff and a picture or two of your honey(s). I recall a couple of OD towels. One-each poncho, OD in color. Some carried paperback books to read between patrol stops and right at dusk. We also carried a flashlight with a red lens cover although it was not used too often for obvious reasons.A few smoke grenades to pop for helicopters.We also packed some hand flares to pop. I carried a Lineman’s knife (TL-29 I think), that I had acquired in my signal unit in Germany before being levied to Vietnam. I am sure I have forgotten something. Sorry five decades is a bit of time for accurate recall. Did I mention the bottle of rum and Pina Colada mix, Brie cheese—no...that was a different camping trip to the lake. Ha ha.You are looking at about 90 to 100 pounds. Think of carrying a teenager with a sprained ankle around all day long. When you have to go to get up someone has to help you up like a husband would help his pregnant wife up from the ground. When incoming rounds start coming in you look awkward diving for cover.Loved the mounted (on top of the APC). Loved the Cadillacs.We held small security bridges and checkpoints and backed up other units. You pulled 3-hour guard shifts at night and as an RTO maintained radio contact with the TOC (Tactical Operations Center).Occasionally we ran short dismounted patrols but our tracks were our Cadillacs and the 173rd Airborne ran mostly dismounted and relied on our tracks in our AOs. I had the recurring luck of riding shotgun with the company clerk on the APC that delivered the mail each day to all the bridge security checkpoints. I manned the 50 cal behind the TC shield. It was just he and I for hours. I had no idea how I got stuck behind the 50 cal with that duty.Later, our battalion would be transferred to the First Field Force-Task Force South near Phan Thiet (a coastal city). Totally different terrain. By the time we got there it was the beginning of monsoon. Our tracks went out immediately on long sweeps and patrols and got stuck in rice patties. We daisy-chained to help each other to get out and many times would have 4–5 vehicles stuck deep in a rice patty all cabled to each other waiting for the VTR to pull us out one by one. We would set up a perimeter, drive vertical PSP stake in the ground in front of the track and along the side and then attach the chain link fence to it to catch B40, RPG and grenades. You would then get your heavy gloves on and grab the concertina and start laying it out along the perimeter edge. Your arms would get ripped as the metal teeth had no conscious and had no recognition as to who the enemy was.We all couldn’t sleep inside the track at night, so after erecting concertina wire around the perimeter and chain link fencing in front of the track, we always erected a tarp to congregate under in the rain. Although the tarp provided some solace, monsoon rain came in at all angles based on the wind, so a soldier stayed dry only in the dead center. Sometimes monsoon rain can come down horizontally, so even the center was no guarantee. Think of the movie “Forrest Gump”. The rain beat you to death.We took turns sleeping on the outer edges. The hammering rain was merciless at night to those inhabitants of the border. The droplets were weighty and rapid. The staccato battering distracted us from the sleep our fatigued bodies screamed for. It was common to wake up with a two- to a three-inch puddle of water in your cot and soaked to the bone. Dismounted—no cots—just soggy everything.Dry socks were kept in a plastic bag inside the track or rucksack. Unfortunately, demand was high and supply was low. After a couple changes a day, we ran out. We bartered precious items like cigarettes and Military Payment Certificates (MPC) to acquire more socks. In no time, most of us contracted some form of foot fungus (jungle rot) that we took back as souvenirs to the States (fungus among us). I still, to this day, have scars between my toes.Guard duty was a real struggle. When a soldier perched on the track for guard duty, the plastic poncho provided some form of coverage, but the face had to be exposed to conduct a 180 degree visual scan of your position. In the States, rain fell in droplets; in Vietnam, it descended in pellets with brute force.Cigarettes were not allowed during guard duty for obvious reasons, so the only company was your thoughts. Long before I learned to live without cigarettes, the craving for one was strong. I would often argue with myself and say, well, if I close the hood real tight, they wouldn’t see the glow. The challenge was to keep it dry and unobservable. Fortunately, self-preservation and logic were stronger than my nicotine addiction so I avoided smoking when I could.After a few minutes, with great reluctance, the brief reprieve ended, and I returned to my role as guard. Grabbing the hood and sliding it down to expose my face, my return to the bleak and wet night was complete. I was then faced with staring intently at the perimeter, struggling to detect movement, all the while being battered by the voluminous buckets of water. Because I wore glasses, it was a continuous battle to keep them from blurring and restricting my vision. I couldn’t see with them, and I couldn’t see without them. Humorously, I reassured myself that the stealthy enemy was pretty bright and had no interest in sliding through the deep rice patties of water putrid with buffalo dung and mosquito larva to sneak upon us. I hoped. Still, it would be an opportune time so caution was the calling card.I am sorry but a tribute to Vietnam is not complete without the erie vibratory and hypnotic voice of Grace Slick singing ‘White Rabbit” or CCR punching out “Fortunate Son” or my all-time favorite that I almost wore out on the jukebox in Germany before being levied to Vietnam was Otis Reading’s “Sitting on the Dock of the Bay.”Another day—another night in the life of an eighteen-year-old in sunny Southeast Asia.

During the Vietnam War, what was the typical day like for a US soldier? What time would they normally go on patrol? What time did they go to sleep? Where did they eat?

As my fellow colleagues have shared, there was no standard. I was in a mechanized infantry unit which meant we performed both mounted and dismounted patrols. We secured bridges, conducted highway sweeps, performed Thunder Runs, responded with Rapid Reactions, handled hamlet security at nights, our Scout provided convoy escort.In the Bong Son Plain (Binh Dinh Province) we were the rapid reaction for 173rd Airborne units along with securing every bridge from LZ Low Boy all the way south of Bong Son. We conducted highway sweeps every morning looking for mines. We secured Tam Quan hamlet at night and ran Thunder Runs along Highway One between midnight and 2 AM random mornings (firing off both sides of the roads. We held small security points and checkpoints and backed up other units. You pulled 3-hour guard shifts at night and as an RTO maintained radio contact with the TOC (Tactical Operations Center). You ate C Rations or LRRPs (dehydrated dogfood) which was reconstituted with water heated with C4 explosive removed from a M18 Claymore. Occasionally we ran dismounted patrols but our tracks were our Cadillacs and the 173rd ran mostly dismounted in our AOs. I had the recurring luck of riding shotgun with the company clerk on the APC that delivered the mail each day to all the bridge security checkpoints. I manned the 50 cal behind the TC shield. It was just he and I for hours.Later, our battalion would be transferred to the First Field Force-Task Force South near Phan Thiet. Totally different terrain. By the time we got there it was the beginning of monsoon. Our tracks went out immediately on long sweeps and patrols and got stuck in rice patties. We daisy-chained to help each other to get out and many times would have 4–5 vehicles stuck deep in a rice patty all cabled to each other waiting for the VTR to pull us out one by one. We would set up a perimeter, drive vertical PSP stake in the ground in front of the track and along the side and then attach the chain link fence to it to catch B40, RPG and grenades. You would then get your heavy gloves on and grab the concertina and start laying it out along the perimeter edge. Your arms would get ripped as the metal teeth had no conscious and had no recognition as to who the enemy was.We all couldn’t sleep inside the track at night, so after erecting concertina wire around the perimeter and chain link fencing in front of the track, we always erected a tarp to congregate under in the rain. Although the tarp provided some solace, monsoon rain came in at all angles based on the wind, so a soldier stayed dry only in the dead center. Sometimes monsoon rain can come down horizontally, so even the center was no guarantee. Think of the movie “Forrest Gump”.We took turns sleeping on the outer edges. The hammering rain was merciless at night to those inhabitants of the border. The droplets were weighty and rapid. The staccato battering distracted us from the sleep our fatigued bodies screamed for. It was common to wake up with a two- to three-inch puddle of water in your cot and soaked to the bone. Dry socks were kept in a plastic bag inside the track. Unfortunately, demand was high and supply was low. After a couple changes a day, we ran out. We bartered precious items like cigarettes and Military Payment Certificates (MPC) to acquire more socks. In no time, most of us contracted some form of foot fungus that we took back as souvenirs to the States. I still, to this day, have scars between my toes.Guard duty was a real struggle. When a soldier perched on the track for guard duty, the plastic poncho provided some form of coverage, but the face had to be exposed to conduct a 180 degree visual scan of your position. In the States, rain fell in droplets; in Vietnam, it descended in pellets with brute force.Cigarettes were not allowed during guard duty for obvious reasons, so the only company was your thoughts. Long before I learned to live without cigarettes, the craving for one was strong. I would often argue with myself and say, well, if I close the hood real tight, they wouldn’t see the glow. The challenge was to keep it dry and unobservable. Fortunately, self-preservation and logic were stronger than my nicotine addiction so I avoided smoking when I could.After a few minutes, with great reluctance, the brief reprieve ended, and I returned to my role as guard. Grabbing the hood and sliding it down to expose my face, my return to the bleak and wet night was complete. I was then faced with staring intently at the perimeter, struggling to detect movement, all the while being battered by the voluminous pellets of water. Because I wore glasses, it was a continuous battle to keep them from blurring and restricting my vision. I couldn’t see with them, and I couldn’t see without them. Humorously, I reassured myself that the stealthy enemy was pretty bright and had no interest in sliding through the deep rice patties of water putrid with buffalo dung and mosquito larva to sneak up on us. I hoped. Still, it would be an opportune time so caution was the calling card.It sucked.

Is it a rude awakening for Eurasian-centrists to tie ancient Egypt's origin to places other than those in Africa to find out that those ancient people were brown skinned "black" too?

No. The statement is flawed, unrealistic. I can provide the truth, if you are interested, and expand on this topic - ‘a rude awakening’. No, they were not "Blacks" too?The Gebelein predynastic mummies are six naturally mummified bodies, dating to approximately 3400 BC from the Late Predynastic period of Ancient Egypt. They were the first complete predynastic bodies to be discovered. The well-preserved bodies were excavated at the end of the nineteenth century by Wallis Budge, the British Museum Keeper for Egyptology, from shallow sand graves near Gebelein (today, Naga el-Gherira) in the Egyptian desert.Gebelein WomanWorld's 'oldest tattoos' found on ancient Egyptian mummiesGebelein WomanSome Of The Oldest-Ever Tattoos Found On Egyptian MummiesFile:Bm-ginger.jpg - Wikimedia CommonsThe mummified man formerly dubbed "Ginger" in a reconstructed Egyptian grave-pit (photo taken in 2008)Size 1.63 metres (5 ft 4 in)Created Late Predynastic period c. 3400BCDiscovered GebeleinPresent location British Museum, LondonIdentification EA 32751Ginger, British Museum, 2013Gebelein predynastic mummies - WikipediaAncient Middle EastTell AswadRegion Damascus basinPart of VillageFounded c. 9300These plastered skulls you see before you, are from the Middle/Late Pre-Pottery Neolithic B Period, Levant, the site of Tell Aswad, Syria, dated some 9,500 years ago. Neither, they, or the later Sumerians can be confused with Africans, or Sub-Saharan African peoples, while neither did they resemble them. Not culturally, racially, or in any historical context.The plastered skulls of the Middle/Late Pre-Pottery Neolithic B from Aswad, Syria, were one of the most enigmatic means to represent individual and Neolithic corporate identities. (by courtesy Mission El Kowm-Mureybet du Ministère des Affaires étrangères France. Photo: L. Dugué)Tell AswadRegion Damascus basinPart of VillageFounded c. 9300The fieldwork at Tell Aswad has changed the dating system at this site, abolishing the Aswadian period in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) period (9500–8700 cal BC). The latest research has split the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) period into 3; PPNB Ancien from 8700 to 8200 cal BC and the PPNB Moyen from 8200 to 7500 BC. PPNB Récent has been equated with Dunand's "Néolithique ancien de Byblos".A plastered and painted skull from Tell Aswad, PPNB period.Tell Aswad (Arabic: تل أسود‎‎, "Black hill"), Su-uk-su or Shuksa, is a large prehistoric, neolithic tell, about 5 hectares (540,000 sq ft) in size, located around 48 kilometres (30 mi) from Damascus in Syria, on a tributary of the Barada River at the eastern end of the village of Jdeidet el Khass.By this time in human history, people lived in mud brick houses, and within those houses people built platforms on which to place their ancestors' skulls. Skulls were dug up, the lower jaw removed, and gaps were filled in with plaster. Then it was covered with plaster, with the outermost layers molded to resemble the person's discrete facial structure. After that, it was painted in red ocher or black bitumen. Details were included: the person's hair was painted, and their facial features were painted on, even mustaches were added. Some had cowrie shells placed as their eyes.The amount of detail suggests each plaster skull is a representation of a specific person, a connection intended by the artists. This would make these skulls some of the earliest intentional portraiture. These ancestral representations were prominently placed in peoples' houses, in areas where people went about their daily lives. The skulls were seen and were present in the family's life, not relegated to a separate cemetery with a dedication stele, as is a current popular tradition.Plastered human skulls are reconstructed human skulls that were made in the ancient Levant between 9,000 and 6,000 BC in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B period. They represent some of the oldest forms of art in the Middle East and demonstrate that the prehistoric population took great care in burying their ancestors below their homes. The skulls denote some of the earliest sculptural examples of portraiture in the history of art.A PPNB (7,000-6,000 BCE) plastered Natufian skull from JerichoThe Painted SkullPlastered human skullsPlastered human skulls are reconstructed human skulls that were made in the ancient Levant between 9,000 and 6,000 BC in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B period. WikipediaCreated: 9000–6000 BCPresent location: LevantMaterial: Plaster and boneThe plastered skulls of Jericho | Ancient OriginsMore than sixty plaster skulls have been found at six sites around the area of the Levant, usually dated to 7,000 ...This man’s skull was ritualistically transformed 9,000 years ago in JerichoThe British Museum reconstructed the face of the most intriguing skull in its collection.This is how the Jericho Skull looks today after it was excavated in 1953 by archaeologist Kathleen Kenyon. Its face was plastered and painted, and its eyes replaced with shells.Here's another micro-CT scan, revealing the structure of what were once painted lips on the plastered skull. Plastering was a sign of great respect among Neolithic peoples, and the skull would have been put on display.Final stages of the reconstruction. On the left, you can see the slight distortion of the skull shape from binding. Binding this man's skull when he was an infant caused his head to appear wider from the front. It would not have affected his brain in any way.This man’s skull was ritualistically transformed 9,000 years ago in JerichoThe Jericho Skull - Face of 9,500-Year-Old Man Revealed for ...Jan 6, 2017 — Excavated by archaeologist Kathleen Kenyon in 1953, the Jericho Skull is one of seven plastered and ornamented Neolithic skulls located at ...Facial reconstruction of the Jericho Skull (© Trustees of the British Museum) (Voon 2017).https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Facial-reconstruction-of-the-Jericho-Skull-C-Trustees-of-the-British-Museum-Voon-2017_fig2_314191557NATUFIANS (12,500-9500 B.C.) | Facts and Detailsthe Natufian culture refers to most hunter-gatherers who lived in modern-day Israel, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria approximately 11,500 to 15,000 years ago.Natufians founded a settlement where Jericho is today, which may therefore be the longest continuously inhabited urban area on Earth. Some evidence suggests deliberate cultivation of cereals, specifically rye, by the Natufian culture, at Tell Abu Hureyra, the site of earliest evidence of agriculture in the world.Natufian cultureThe Natufian culture is a Late Epipaleolithic archaeological culture of the Levant, dating to around 15,000 to 11,500 years ago. The culture was unusual in that it supported a sedentary or semi-sedentary population even before the introduction of agriculture. WikipediaDeciphering a palaeolithic textileThe El Wad burials have been dated between 14,000 and 13,000 years BP (remember, radiocarbon dating gives dates as BP or "before present", which means before 1 January 1950). At this time, the Natufians hadn't yet discovered weaving as we know it today. Woven textiles don't start to appear until later in the neolithic around 6000 BCE. Instead, they made twined linen textiles lReconstruction of el-Wad H 25. Based on photograph and text in Garrod and Bate 1937: Pl. VI2 and Garrod 1940: 124.Reconstruction of el-Wad H 41. Based on photograph and text in Garrod 1940: Pl. 12c.Material remains from burials at el-Wad, Mallaha and Hayonim provide evidence for the important role of personal adornment in the Early Natufian. Reconstruction drawings based on beaded headdresses, jewelry and clothing reveal a surprising level of sophistication. While the social implications of these costume elements can only be tenuously inferre...Reconstruction of el-Wad H 57. Based on photograph and text in Garrod and Bate 1937: Pl. VII1, and Garrod 1940: 125.Reconstruction of el-Wad H 23. Based on photograph and text in Garrod and Bate 1937: 18, Pl. VII2.Personal Adornment in the Epi-Paleolithic of the Levanthttps://www.researchgate.net/figure/Reconstruction-of-el-Wad-H-25-Based-on-photograph-and-text-in-Garrod-and-Bate-1937-Pl_fig3_324113479Tell FekheriyeTell Fekheriye (often spelled as Tell el-Fakhariya or Tell Fecheriye, among other variants) is an ancient site in the Khabur River basin in the Al Hasakah Governorate of northern Syria. It is securely identified as the site of Sikkan, attested since c. 2000 BC. Sikkan was part of the Aramaean kingdom of Bit Bahiani in the early 1st millennium BC. In the area, several mounds, called tells, can be found in close proximity: Tell Fekheriye, Ra's al-'Ayn, and Tell Halaf, site of the Aramean and Neo-Assyrian city of Guzana. During the excavation, the Tell Fekheriye bilingual inscription was discovered at the site, which provides the source of information about Hadad-yith'i.In the early 20th century Tell Fekheriye was suggested as the site of Washukanni, the capital of Mitanni, but the claim is unconfirmed. Many scholars opposed this theory including Michael Roaf, Peter Akkermans, David Oates, Joan Oates and Edward Lipiński. However this identification received a new support by Stefano de Martino due to recent archaeological excavations by a German team lead by Mirko Novák and Dominik Bonatz.HistoryThe site of Tell Fekheriye was occupied as early as the Akkadian period. The limited excavations so far conducted have shown substantial developments in the Middle Assyrian, Mitanni and Neo-Assyrian periods.Two Neolithic figurines (9000–7000 BC), gypsum with bitumen and stone inlays, excavated in Tell Fekheriye.Exhibited in the Oriental Institute Museum, Chicago, USA.Tell Fekheriye - WikipediaIsrael [Canaan], 7000BCE plastered skulls.Neolithic site of Ain Al-Ghazzal, Jordan. 7000 B.C. (Amalekites?) sculptures.Facial reconstruction of 7,000-year-old skeletonByEmad Askarieh-June 16, 2015The computer-aided facial reconstruction has resulted in the creation of a chin, cheekbones, lips, a nose, eyes and ears.Experts at Iran’s Archeology Research Center have reconstructed the face of a 7,000-old year woman whose skeleton was dug out in urban excavations in a southern neighborhood of the capital last year.According to the Public Relations Office of the Cultural Heritage and Tourism Research Center, experts first photo-scanned the skeleton before applying photogrammetry techniques to the images to create a 3-D model.Mohammad Reza Rokni, an expert with the research center said the computer-aided facial reconstruction featured software and resulted in the creation of a chin, cheekbones, lips, a nose, eyes and ears.He further said facial reconstruction of skeletons is routine, images of reconstructed faces in Iran may not have been released, though.The discovery last year of a few pottery vessels by a student in Moulavi Street prompted archeological excavations which produced two skeletons – one of them was intact and dated back 7,000 years – and a few other ancient objects.Facial reconstruction of 7,000-year-old skeleton | Iran Front PageReconstruction of 5000 year-old woman found at the “Burnt City”. Her face was reconstructed with the latest technology available to anthropologists and paleontologists (not to mention forensics). She is believed to have been of the ancient city’s upper crust and served as a priestess during her lifetime. The lady is also notable due to the artificial eye that was discovered, still lodged in the eye socket of her skull after thousands of years.Maryam Tabeshian of the Cultural Heritage News Agency of Iran (December 10, 2006 had previously noted of researchers having excavated a 4,800-year-old artificial eye along with a skeleton and other findings from the Burnt City (located near the city of Zahedan in Iran’s Seistan-Baluchistan province in the southeast of Iran).Skeleton of a young woman from the Burnt City. Note artificial eye in the eye socket of the skull.The site of the Burnt City has also yielded numerous interesting finds including an ancient measuring ruler, backgammon game pieces and an animation device. Researchers have ascertained that the artificial eye belonged to a woman aged 25-30 who hailed from a higher echelon of the local society at the Burnt City.Ancient dices discovered at the Burnt-City. At present experts are (a) attempting to determine why the game was played with sixty pieces and (b) working to decode the rules of the game. Iranians call Backgammon “Takht-e Nard”.Interestingly, the woman’s gravesite also yielded vessels of clay, a leather bag, a mirror of bronze and various other ornaments. Professor Michael Harris, a specialist in the field of optometry at the University of California at Berkeley, has stated that:“It’s unlikely such attention and effort would have been paid to a commoner…She may have been a member of a royal family or an otherwise wealthy individual.”Prosthetics were of course known in the ancient era with references made to an artificial eye of gold in Hebrew texts (Yer. Ned. 41c; comp. Yer. Sanh. 13c). The prosthetic found in Iran however is different in that it is evidence of the oldest attempt at making this as “realistic” as possible. Professor Mansur Sayyed-Sajadi, who supervised the excavation, has stated:“At first glance, it seems natural tar mixed with animal fat has been used in making[the eye]…whoever made the eye likely used a fine golden wire, thinner than half a millimeter, to draw even the most delicate eye capillaries…”A curious feature of the “eye” are parallel lines that have been drawn around the pupil to form a diamond shape.Two holes at the sides of the “eye” helped hold it in place. The eye socket of the woman however appears to have developed an abscess as a result of constant contact with the prosthetic.https://www.kavehfarrokh.com/iranian-studies/iranica/women-of-persia/reconstruction-of-the-face-of-a-5000-year-old-woman-in-iran/The world’s earliest prosthetic eye was worn by an ancient Persian priestess. The female soothsayer stood 6′ (1.82m) tall, and the mesmerizing effects of the golden eyeball would have convinced those who saw it that she could see into the future. “It must have glittered spectacularly, conferring on the woman a mysterious and supernatural gaze,” said leader of the Italian team Lorenzo Costantini, adding, “She must have been a very striking and exotic figure.”The priestess lived 5,000 years ago in what is now Iran, where her skeleton was unearthed in 2006 by Iranian and Italian archaeologists excavating an ancient necropolis at Shahr-i-Sokhta [“Burnt City”] in the Sistan desert. The eyeball was made of a lightweight material thought to be derived from bitumen paste and later determined to consist of a mixture of natural tar and animal fat. Lines had been engraved radiating from the iris and gold that had been applied in a thin layer over the surface. A tiny hole had been drilled on each side of the half-sphere, which had a diameter of just over 1″ (2.5cm), so that it could be held in place with thread. Microscopic examination confirmed that the artificial eye had been worn during life: the socket had an imprint from prolonged contact and marks from the thread. Further analysis suggested that the woman may have had an abscess on her eyelid because of long-term contact with the golden eyeball.Mansour Sajjadi (pictured), leader of the Iranian team, stated that the skeleton was that of a woman, aged between 25 and 30, whose cause of death could not be determined. She had lived between 2900 and 2800 B.C. and her facial characteristics (see video about facial reconstruction here) differed from the local inhabitants, suggesting that she had migrated from Arabia. “However, considering the usage of tar in the artificial eyeball and proficiency of jewelers of Burnt City during ancient times, what we can say for sure is that the eye was made in this city.”5000 Year Old Artificial Eye | Northwest Eye DesignMitanni | ancient empire, Mesopotamia, Asia | Britannica— Mitanni, Indo-Iranian empire centred in northern Mesopotamia that flourished from about 1500 to about 1360 bc. At its height the empire .Mitanni - Livius— Mitanni or Mittanni: ancient kingdom in modern Kurdistan, northern Iraq, and Syria, attested in the third quarter of the second millennium BCE.Mitanni and Kurdistan - Zoroastrian Heritageheritageinstitute.com › zoroastrianism › ranghaya › mit... kingdom of the Mitanni Indo-Iranian dynasty that ruled in the land of the Hurrians was located in the upper Euphrates-Tigris basin - land that is now part of ...Cylinder seal, c. 1500–1350 BC, MitanniMetropolitan Museum of Art - Metropolitan Museum of ArtThe Mitanni dynasty ruled over the northern Euphrates-Tigris region between c. 1600 and 1350 BCE. Eventually, Mitanni succumbed to Hittite and later Assyrian attacks and was reduced to the status of a province of the Middle Assyrian Empire between c. 1350 and 1260 BCE.Religion: Hurrian religion; Ancient Mesopotam...Mitanni - WikipediaSumeriansSumerians/MesopotamiansSumerSumerian dignitary, Uruk, circa 3300-3000 BCE. National Museum of Iraq.[3][4]Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin FRCP(Glasg) - Own workEgyptian pre-historic Gebel el-Arak Knife. Dated 3400–3200 BCE, Abydos, Egypt. Louvre Museum[5]Cc-by-sa-3.0-frGebel el-Arak knife (front and back)Mesopotamian king as Master of Animals on the top of the handle. This work of art both shows the influence of Mesopotamia on Egypt at an early date, in an example of ancient Egypt–Mesopotamia relations, and the state of Mesopotamian royal iconography during the Uruk period.Mesopotamian king as Master of Animals on the top of the handle. This work of art both shows the influence of Mesopotamia on Egypt at an early date, in an example of ancient Egypt–Mesopotamia relations, and the state of Mesopotamian royal iconography during the Uruk period.File:Warka Mask, Iraq Museum.jpg File:Warka Mask, Iraq Museum.jpgEnglish: The mask of Warka, from Warka (ancient Uruk), Iraq. Jemdet Nasr period, 3000-2900 BCE. The Iraq Museum, Baghdad.Date 14 March 2019, 09:48:07Source Own workAuthor Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin FRCP(Glasg)Cylinder-seal of the Uruk period and its impression, c.3100 BCE. Louvre MuseumMarie-Lan Nguyen - This file has been extracted from another file: Cylinder seal king Louvre AO6620.jpgUruk King priest feeding the sacred herdThe Blau Monuments combine proto-cuneiform characters and illustrations of early Sumerians, Jemdet Nasr period, 3100–2700 BC. British Museum.Sumerians/MesopotamiaSumer - WikipediaMesopotamia in the 2nd millennium BC. From north to south: Nineveh, Qattara (or Karana), Dūr-Katlimmu, Assur, Arrapha, Terqa, Nuzi, Mari, Eshnunna, Dur-Kurigalzu, Der, Sippar, Babylon, Kish, Susa, Borsippa, Nippur, Isin, Uruk, Larsa and Ur.Merimde culture clay head, circa 5,000 BCE. This is one of the earliest known representations of a human head in Egypt.This man is nearly 6,000 years oldThe statuette in the Cairo Museum, extremely similar to the Louvre piece, is even taller (35 cm). The position of the man is the same, but he is wearing a penis sheath, a common accessory in Egypt and the Middle East in the fourth millennium BC. It has the same inlaid eyes, rounded, clean-shaven head, and long, slender body. The shape of the beard is different, but the two figures are so similar that these statuettes must have been fairly contemporaneous. The Cairo statuette comes from the richest tomb in the Mahasna cemetery (some fifteen kilometers downstream from Abydos), which contained the skeletons of a man and a woman. It has been accurately dated, via the ceramic, from the Naqada I period, to between 4000 and 3700 BC.Nude Male Statuette | Louvre Museum | ParisPrehistoric Egypt - WikipediaThis small male figurine carved from hippopotamus ivory comes from Safadi, in the Negev, Israel. It is a fine illustration of the work of ivory carvers around 3500 BC. The naturalistic style and rather stiff pose are characteristic of many male or female nude statues of the time. Their role may be religious or related to fertility. Male figure | Louvre Museum | Paris[ET] Female figure, cm. 20 from the Naqada culture , 4000 BCAntico Egitto - Veneri Preistoriche - Archeoastronomia in ItaliaNaqada I - Naquada IIbetween 4,000 / 3,600 BC and 3,000 BC.[ET] Mother and child. 3000 BC Protodynastic. Aegyptisches Museum.BerlinNaqada culture (4000–3000 BC)The Naqada culture is an archaeological culture of Chalcolithic Predynastic Egypt (c. 4400–3000 BC), named for the town of Naqada, Qena Governorate. It is divided into three sub-periods: Naqada I, II and III.NaqadaThe Amratian (Naqada I) culture lasted from about 4000 to 3500 BC. Black-topped ware continues to appear, but white cross-line ware – a type of pottery which has been decorated with crossing sets of close parallel white lines – is also found at this time. The Amratian period falls between 30 and 39 SD.File:Figurine, Predynastic Egypt.jpgNaqada culture (4000-3000 BC)File:Bearded men. 3800-3100.Upper Egypt.Musée des Confluences.Lyon.jpgBearded man (left): stone. 3800-3500 Nagada I. Upper Egypt (Gebelein).Bearded man (right): breach. 3300-3100 Nagada I. Upper Egypt (Gebelein)File:Predynastic-WomenMourning-ROM.png - Wikimedia CommonsPredynastic unfired clay statuettes thought to depict women in mourning, from the Ancient Egyptian wing of the Royal Ontario Museum.Date 15 January 2007Source Own Work (photo)Author Keith Schengili-RobertsPossible Mesopotamia–Egypt trade routes from the 4th millennium BCE.Egypt–Mesopotamia relations - WikipediaTELL EL-FARKHA3-4. Hoard Tell el-Farkha, Eastern Kom Late Predynastic 3. Standing male figurine H. 57 cm, gold Cairo, Egyptian Museum, R-485 4. Standing male figurine H. 30 cm, gold Cairo, Egyptian Museum, R-486Once the crushed and bent pieces of sheet gold were laboriously reconstructed and conserved, they turned out to belong to two male figurines presumably representing an early ruler and his son and heir. The core of these statuettes was made of some perishable material like wood, no traces of which have been preserved. The gold sheet was attached to this core with numerous gold rivets 4 140 such rivets were found 4 amply testifying to the exceptional skills of the goldsmiths of the time. Both figures were of standing naked males. The eyes of both were made of lapis-lazuli, a raw material then imported from as far away as present-day Afghanistan on the peripheries of the known world. This is by the way further corroboration of the enormous significance that trade had for the ruling elites of the emerging Egyptian state. The eyebrows of the statuettes were also inlaid with some other material than gold, possibly bitumen or ebony, but no trace of this has survived. Both these raw materials had to be imported to Egypt, bitumen from the Near East and ebony from Nubia. The style of the figurines and the emphasis on some of the details, such as protruding ears, bigger than life phalluses, and meticulously rendered nails on the fingers and toes, fit well with the character of Predynastic art in Egypt. So far, however, there have been no discoveries of similar figures made of precious materials, depicting what could have been early rulers and their heirs. The necklace found together with the figurines appears to have been connected with the larger of the two statuettes. The fact that the beads were made of undoubtedly imported ostrich eggshells and carnelian serves to emphasize the significance of the figurines.https://pcma.uw.edu.pl/wp-content/uploads/template/main/img/lat70/cat_3-4.pdfEgyptian AntiquitiesAuthor(s):David ElisabethThis little statuette is one of a series of ivory figurines dated by scholars to circa the Early Dynastic Period. Although most have a tenon beneath the feet, it is not known to what they were fixed, and their purpose thus remains unknown. In the absence of any context of discovery, the probable date of the sculpture has been deduced from stylistic features. Female Nude | Louvre Museum | ParisEgyptian AntiquitiesFrom the end of Prehistory to the end of the Middle Kingdom (c. 3800 - 1710 BC)Author (s):Élisabeth DavidThis woman, shivering in a cloak, probably dates back to the beginning of the dynastic period.It is attached to a series of ivory figurines of men and women, dressed or not, relatively numerous.Like all the others, it was part of a larger whole: under its feet, a tenon allowed it to be plugged into a support, and the top of its head is pierced with a hole.Egypt: a cold country where the sun is hotOn the walls of temples and tombs, the representations may suggest that the Egyptians were always dressed lightly. It is not: the dawn is freezing there and the cloak was a very common garment. We found in some tombs, next to various dresses and loincloths, large pieces of cloth that must have served as a cloak. They are most often without form or seam, because we draped themselves in them as with a shawl.The art of draping yourself in your dignityThe coat of the statuette is worn in a sophisticated way: the fabric is wrapped around the body, passing under the right arm of the woman pressed against the body, then covering the left shoulder.The left side is held in front of the body by the left hand, completely hidden below.The woman is probably wearing a tunic of thick or looped fabric, one sleeve of which appears on the right shoulder, while the other protrudes from the coat along the left.A statue difficult to dateOpinions are divided as to the age of the figurine: the ivory statuettes have been attested since at least the time of Badari (4500-3800 BC). A series of figurines, male and female (and animal?), Has been updated in a repository on the site of Hierakonpolis, but it is not dated with certainty. The Louvre woman has no archaeological pedigree, and does not have an exact parallel, whether dated or not. Her hairstyle, strands in bands on either side of the head gathered in the back by a loose ribbon at the shoulders, is similar to that of another ivory statuette from the Louvre. Unfortunately, this parallel also has no discovery context. The very stiff character of the figure, his head sunk into the shoulders, encourage us to attribute it to the thinite era (1st and 2nd dynasties, 3100-2700 BC).Battlefield PaletteObverseEinsamer Schütze - Own workBritish Museum, LondonReversePossible prisoners and wounded men of the Buto-Maadi culture devoured by animals, while one is led by a man in long dress, probably an Egyptian official (fragment, top right corner). Battlefield Palette.Jon Bodsworth - http://www.egyptarchive.co.uk/html/british_museum_07.htmlThe Battlefield Palette (also known as the Vultures Palette, the Giraffes Palette, or the Lion Palette) may be the earliest battle scene representation of the dozen or more ceremonial or ornamental cosmetic palettes of ancient Egypt. Along with the others in this series of palettes, including the Narmer Palette, it includes some of the first representations of the figures, or glyphs, that became Egyptian hieroglyphs. Most notable on the Battlefield Palette is the standard (iat hieroglyph), and Man-prisoner hieroglyph, probably the forerunner that gave rise to the concept of the Nine bows (representation of foreign tribal enemies).The palettes probably date mostly from the Naqada III (ca. 3300–3100 BC), i.e. late predynastic period, around 3100 BC. The two major pieces of the Battlefield Palette are held by the British and Ashmolean Museums.Lower fragment, obverse, (28 x 20 cm), in the British Museum.Robed individual and defeated enemiesAn individual in robe appears fragmentarily behind a naked prisoners. He may be wearing a full-length dress made of leopard skin, and is probably a representative of the victorious Pharaoh standing behind one of the naked prisoner (naked, but for a penile sheath). The fragment in front of the prisoner may possibly be part of the ancient sign for "Libya", an early enemy of pre-Dynastic Egyptian kings. The character would consist in the throwing stick on top of an oval, meaning "region", "place", "island", a toponym of Libya or Western Delta pronounced THnw, Tjehenw, as seen on the Libyan Palette.Man in patterned and fringed dress, behind naked prisoner.The prisoners on the Battlefield Palette may be people of the Buto-Maadi culture subjected by the Egyptian rulers of Naqada III.Einsamer Schütze - This file has been extracted from another file: British Museum Egypt 029.jpgBattlefield Palette - WikipediaEgyptian Narmer Palette with serpopard design.The route of this trade is difficult to determine, but contact with Canaan does not predate the early dynastic, so it is usually assumed to have been by sea trade. During the time when the Dynastic Race Theory was still popular, it was theorized that Uruk sailors circumnavigated Arabia, but a Mediterranean route, probably by middlemen through Byblos, is more likely, as evidenced by the presence of Byblian objects in Egypt. Glyptic art also seems to have played a key role, through the circulation of decorated cylinder seals across the Levant, a common hinterland of both empireEgyptian palettes, such as the Narmer Palette (3200–3000 BC), borrow elements of Mesopotamian iconography, in particular the sauropod design of Uruk.Narmer Palette (circa 3000 BCE). The Egyptian symbol of the king smiting his enemies with a mace was adopted centuries later by the dynasts of Mesopotamia.The most important early ‘urban’ site in Egypt is undoubtedly the ancient Nekhen, modern Kom el-Ahmar (‘Red Mound’), best known by its Classical name Hierakonpolis, located 80 km (50 miles) south of Thebes on the west bank of the Nile. The Predynastic and Early Dynastic city was spread out over an area running 2.5 km (1½ miles) from north to south along the Nile and, more remarkably, over 3 km (almost 2 miles) from east to west. Within this extensive zone, different clusters of structures developed with their own individual character.The site was first excavated in a systematic way by the British archaeologists James Quibell and Frederick Green in 1897–99. They were lucky enough to discover a major early temple, which is most famous for the ‘Main Deposit’, an extraordinary cache of votive material that contained the most important objects for the unification period found anywhere in Egypt. The most famous of these objects are the Narmer Palette and the Narmer and ‘Scorpion’ maceheads. These over-sized ceremonial objects are covered with relief decoration of two individuals – to whom we refer as Narmer and ‘Scorpion’ – depicted wearing regalia and behaving in ways (smiting enemies, initiating major communal projects) that in later periods were used as motifs designating royal activity. Therefore these objects support the view that Hierakonpolis was not only a major settlement site of Upper Egypt at the time of the unification, but that it was also a political centre – perhaps the capital of a southern kingdom – which produced the leaders who would become kings of a unified Egypt around 3050 BC.In an early example of royal sponsorship of agricultural projects, King ‘Scorpion’ wields a hoe on this important ceremonial object from Hierakonpolis, the ‘Scorpion’ Macehead. Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford.The Origins of Urbanism in Ancient EgyptProtodynastic sceptre fragment with royal couple. Staatliche Sammlung für Ägyptische Kunst, MunichEinsamer Schütze - Own workFragment of a ceremonial palette illustrating a man and a type of staff. Circa 3200–3100 BCE, Predynastic, Late Naqada III.Founding Dynasties2nd and 3rd DynastiesNebra (pharaoh)Nebra or Raneb is the Horus name of the second early Egyptian king of the 2nd Dynasty. The exact length of his reign is unknown since the Turin canon is damaged and the year accounts are lost. Manetho suggests that Nebra's reign lasted 39 years, but Egyptologists question Manetho's view as a misinterpretation or exaggeration of information that was available to him. They credit Nebra with either a 10- or 14-year rule.Nebra (pharaoh) - WikipediaNynetjerNynetjer is the Horus name of the third pharaoh of the Second Dynasty of Egypt. The length of his reign is unknown. The Turin Canon suggests an improbable reign of 96 years and Egyptian historian Manetho suggested that Nynetjer's reign lasted 47 years. WikipediaDied: 2845 BC, Saqqara Necropolis, EgyptPlace of burial: Saqqara Necropolis, EgyptNynetjer - WikipediaDetail from the Statue of Djoser.Found inside the temple to the north of his step pyramid. The eyes were once inlaid with semi-precious stones and and a painted moustache is still partially preserved on his upper lip.3rd dynasty, from Saqqara.JE 49158Cairo MuseumFacebookDjoserDjoser was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 3rd Dynasty during the Old Kingdom and the founder of this epoch. He is also known by his Hellenized names Tosorthros and Sesorthos. He was the son of king Khasekhemwy and queen Nimaathap, but whether he also was the direct throne successor is still unclear. WikipediaPrincess Redjief SeatedThird DynastyBasaltRelief Block with the Figure of Aa-akhtiLate Third DynastyFine-grained limestone with faint remains of paintSepa (priest) - WikipediaSepa was an ancient Egyptian, who lived during Third Dynasty. Sepa was a priest and noble. His titles were "Responsible for Royal Matters", "Greatest of the ten of Upper Egypt", "Priest of the god Kherty" and "Herdsman of the White Bull". Sepa's wife was Nesa, and she was buried with him at Saqqara in a mastaba.Group of ArchersFourth Dynasty, reign of Khufu or KhafrePainted limestoneThis relief fragment, which was reused in the pyramid of Amenemhat I at Lisht, shows one of the most intricate groups of figures extant from Old Kingdom art. Close examination reveals that parts of five archers are preserved on it. We see two complete heads in the center of the carved area. The slightly upturned forehead, eye, and nose of a third man appear at the bottom edge below the head of the man on the right. The outstretched arm and the hand above this third head belong to a fourth man, whose figure is otherwise lost. At the extreme right edge of the fragment the hand and arrow of a fifth man are visible. Of the two arms below the head of the archer on the left, the upper belongs to the second man with a complete head and the lower belongs to the third archer. Thus the group originally consisted of at least three men standing in a row, one behind the other, and another archer kneeling in front of them.All the men hold longbows with arms stretched out straight in front of them at shoulder height. […]Fragments of Paintings from the Tomb of ItetFourth Dynasty, reign of SnefruStanding WomanEarly Fourth DynastyEgyptian alabaster with faint remains of paintMan with a SunshadeFourth Dynasty, reign of KhufuPainted limestoneReserve HeadFourth Dynasty, probably reign of KhufuLimestonePrincess Nefret-Iabet?Fourth Dynasty, reign of KhufuLimestoneSlab Stela of NeferFourth Dynasty, reign of KhufuLimestone with faint remains of paintSneferuHead of King DjedefreFourth Dynasty, reign of DjedefreSetka, Eldest Son of King Djedefre, as a ScribeFourth Dynasty, reign of DjedefreRelief Block with Funerary Meal of Huti and KetisenFourth Dynasty, no later than reign of DjedefreLimestoneSmall Head of King Khafre with the Red CrownFourth Dynasty, reign of KhafreRed limestone with inlaid eyes of stone mounted in copper cells (black stone modern)Head of King KhafreFourth Dynasty, reign of KhafreGneissSmall Head of a King, Probably Khafre, Wearing the White CrownFourth Dynasty, probably reign of KhafreDense beige limestone with inlaid eyes; sclera in white stone surrounded by now-oxidized copper, left pupil in black stone, right pupil missingCatalogue: Fourth DynastyHead of King KhafreFourth Dynasty, reign of KhafreEgyptian alabasterKing KhafreRelief of NeferFourth Dynasty, late reign of Khufu to mid-reign of KhafreLimestoneRelief of Mer-ibFourth DynastyPainted acacia woodLady Khentet-ka and Her SonFourth Dynasty, probably reign of KhafreLimestone with remains of paintHead of a QueenFourth Dynasty, probably reign of KhafreEgyptian alabasterHead of King Menkaure as a Young ManFourth Dynasty, reign of MenkaureIn July 1908 this head and two others (in which the king is shown wearing a nemes headcloth) were uncovered during George Reisner's excavations in the valley temple of Menkaure's pyramid complex at Giza. Other statue fragments, including four bases inscribed for the king, were also discovered. Only one figure could be fully reconstructed, but the similarities of stone and scale suggest that this head belonged to one of at least four lifesize seated statues of Menkaure that were set up in the offering hall of the temple. Although the three heads were carved in slightly varying styles, they clearly represent the same person. The knobbed chin, well-formed mouth, full cheeks, and prominent eyes are seen in other representations of Menkaure, such as that in the pair statue in this catalogue (cat. no. 67). The profile, with its prominent browridge, rounded nose, and deeply undercut lower lip, is especially recognizable as belonging to this king. Menkaure wears the ceremonial royal beard and has a uraeus at his forehead.Head of MenkaureFourth Dynasty, reign of MenkaureGraywackeNow, notice, how the effects change, based on the type of medium, and the missing nose. Based on this, he looks nothing like himself, or the ABOVE IMAGE. Hence, people with base the wrong conclusions, and misinterpret this thing.Triad of King MenkaureFourth Dynasty, reign of MenkaureGraywackeDiscovered by George Reisner in 1908, this statue depicts King Menkaure flanked by two female figures. On his right stands the goddess Hathor, Lady of the Sycamore, identifiable by the cow's horns surrounding a sun disk that she wears on her head. On his left is the personification of the nome (province) of Diospolis Parva, with the emblem of the goddess Bat above her head. Bat is depicted as a woman with cow's horns, whose face is resting on an elaborate knot. The three figures stand against a back slab that joins the base of the statue. All three are standing with their arms at their sides, and Hathor holds the king's right hand in her left. An enigmatic object, identical to those held by the nome goddess, is visible in the sovereign's left hand. Menkaure's left leg is advanced, in the walking pose traditionally reserved for male figures. He is wearing the shendyt, or tripartite pleated royal kilt, and the white crown of Upper Egypt. […]MenkaureKhamerernebty IIMenkaureOld Kingdom Egypt, 4th Dynasty.Catalogue: Fourth DynastyThere are indeed, many examples, plenty, to choose from.Relief of Hemiunu's FaceFourth Dynasty, reign of KhufuLimestonePrince Ba-baef StandingProbably late Fourth DynastyEgyptian alabaster5th Dynasty.Late 4th, early 5th Dynasty.UserkafUserkaf was a pharaoh of ancient Egypt and the founder of the Fifth Dynasty. He reigned for seven to eight years in the early 25th century BC, during the Old Kingdom period. WikipediaSahureSahure was a pharaoh of ancient Egypt and the second ruler of the Fifth Dynasty. He reigned for about 12 years in the early 25th century BC during the Old Kingdom Period. Sahure's reign marks the political and cultural high point of the Fifth Dynasty.Sahure - Wikipedia[Very limited art with respect, Sahure]This is a detail of a large limestone relief (showing the great royal hunting scene of the Egyptian pharaoh Sahure). Here, Sahure wears a knee-length kilt. From the Valley-Temple, Pyramid Complex of Sahure at Abusir, Egypt. Old Kingdom, 5th Dynasty, 2496-2483 BCE. It is on display at the Neues Museum, Berlin, Germany.While, below, is the actual father, of Sahure, and the first ruler of the 5th Dynasty.These all represent the same person.A statue of a Male Brewer.5th dynasty, from Saqqara.CG 117Cairo MuseumDouble statue of Nimaasted.He was a priest in the pyramid complexes of Neferirkare, Neferefre and Niuserre. The two figures apparently represent the same person, either at different ages or with one as a ka-figure.5th dynasty, from Saqqara.CG 133Cairo MuseumFacebookNear Eastern genetic affinity of ancient Egyptian mummiesShared drift and mixture analysis of ancient Egyptian mummies with other ancient and modern and populations. The affinity is strongest (in red) with ancient populations of the Near East.Verena J. Schuenemann, Alexander Peltzer, Beatrix Welte, W. Paul van Pelt, Martyna Molak, Chuan-Chao Wang, Anja Furtwängler, Christian Urban, Ella Reiter, Kay Nieselt, Barbara Teßmann, Michael Francken, Katerina Harvati, Wolfgang Haak, Stephan Schiffels & Johannes Krause - Ancient Egyptian mummy genomes suggest an increase of Sub-Saharan African ancestry in post-Roman periods Material provided under a Creative Commons 4.0 license: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made."Shared drift and mixture analysis of ancient Egyptian mummies with other ancient and modern and populationsA 2017 study of the mitochondrial DNA composition of Egyptian mummies has shown a high level of affinity with the DNA of the populations of the Near East. The study was made on mummies of Abusir el-Meleq, near El Fayum, which was inhabited from at least 3250 BCE until about 700 CE. A shared drift and mixture analysis of the DNA of these ancient Egyptian mummies shows that the connection is strongest with ancient populations from the Levant, the Near East and Anatolia, and to a lesser extent modern populations from the Near East and the Levant. In particular the study finds "that ancient Egyptians are most closely related to Neolithic and Bronze Age samples in the Levant, as well as to Neolithic Anatolian and European populations".Overall the mummies studied were closer genetically to Near Eastern people than the modern Egyptian population, which has a greater proportion of genes coming from sub-Saharan Africa after the Roman period.The data suggest a high level of genetic interaction with the Near East since ancient times, probably going back to Prehistoric Egypt: "Our data seem to indicate close admixture and affinity at a much earlier date, which is unsurprising given the long and complex connections between Egypt and the Middle East. These connections date back to Prehistory and occurred at a variety of scales, including overland and maritime commerce, diplomacy, immigration, invasion and deportation".Krause describes the far-reaching data set gained from looking at mitochondrial genomes: "This is not just the DNA of one person. It's the DNA of the parents, grandparents, grandparents' parents, grand-grand-grandparents' parents and so forth.Beginning Neolithic, Bronze Age.mtDNA markers/groups.More infoList of DNA-tested mummies - Wikipedia 2. The F.B.I. Helped a Museum Learn the Identity of a 4,000-Year-Old Severed Head 3. DNA history of Egypt - WikipediaWith regards, King Tut, we now also have his genetic profile, Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b, mtDNA haplogroup K.DNA study [latest publication]Title: Insights from ancient DNA analysis of Egyptian human mummies: clues to disease and kinshipAn investigative study was carried out on the familial relationships of a number of late 18th dynasty mummies (ca. 1550–1295 B.C.), including that of Tutankhamen. The study was based on the analysis of the autosomal and Y-chromosome STR markers in addition to mitochondrial hypervariable region 1 sequences. A4-generation pedigree of Tutankhamun’s immediate lineage and the identity of his ancestors were established .The Royal male lineage was the Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b that was passed from the grandparent [Amenhotep III] to the father [KV55, Akhenaten] to the grandchild [Tutankhamen]. The maternal lineage, the mitochondrial haplogroup K, extended from the great-grandmother [Thuya] to the grandmother [KV35 Elder lady, Queen Tiye] to the yet historically-unidentified mother [KV35 Younger lady] to Tutankhamen (38, 55). Gad et al., 2020.pdf [ go to page 14 and 15 ]Downloaded from Insights from ancient DNA analysis of Egyptian human mummies: clues to disease and kinship by Serials Section, Dixson Library user on 17 October 2020Gad et al., 2020.pdf

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