Safety Of Air And Maritime Encounters: Fill & Download for Free


Download the form

How to Edit The Safety Of Air And Maritime Encounters easily Online

Start on editing, signing and sharing your Safety Of Air And Maritime Encounters online refering to these easy steps:

  • Click on the Get Form or Get Form Now button on the current page to access the PDF editor.
  • Give it a little time before the Safety Of Air And Maritime Encounters is loaded
  • Use the tools in the top toolbar to edit the file, and the change will be saved automatically
  • Download your edited file.
Get Form

Download the form

The best-reviewed Tool to Edit and Sign the Safety Of Air And Maritime Encounters

Start editing a Safety Of Air And Maritime Encounters right now

Get Form

Download the form

A simple direction on editing Safety Of Air And Maritime Encounters Online

It has become much easier these days to edit your PDF files online, and CocoDoc is the best free web app you have ever used to have some editing to your file and save it. Follow our simple tutorial to start!

  • Click the Get Form or Get Form Now button on the current page to start modifying your PDF
  • Create or modify your content using the editing tools on the toolbar on the top.
  • Affter changing your content, add the date and make a signature to bring it to a perfect comletion.
  • Go over it agian your form before you save and download it

How to add a signature on your Safety Of Air And Maritime Encounters

Though most people are accustomed to signing paper documents with a pen, electronic signatures are becoming more accepted, follow these steps to sign PDF online!

  • Click the Get Form or Get Form Now button to begin editing on Safety Of Air And Maritime Encounters in CocoDoc PDF editor.
  • Click on Sign in the tools pane on the top
  • A popup will open, click Add new signature button and you'll have three choices—Type, Draw, and Upload. Once you're done, click the Save button.
  • Drag, resize and position the signature inside your PDF file

How to add a textbox on your Safety Of Air And Maritime Encounters

If you have the need to add a text box on your PDF for customizing your special content, follow the guide to get it done.

  • Open the PDF file in CocoDoc PDF editor.
  • Click Text Box on the top toolbar and move your mouse to drag it wherever you want to put it.
  • Write down the text you need to insert. After you’ve writed down the text, you can use the text editing tools to resize, color or bold the text.
  • When you're done, click OK to save it. If you’re not satisfied with the text, click on the trash can icon to delete it and do over again.

A simple guide to Edit Your Safety Of Air And Maritime Encounters on G Suite

If you are finding a solution for PDF editing on G suite, CocoDoc PDF editor is a commendable tool that can be used directly from Google Drive to create or edit files.

  • Find CocoDoc PDF editor and establish the add-on for google drive.
  • Right-click on a PDF file in your Google Drive and click Open With.
  • Select CocoDoc PDF on the popup list to open your file with and allow access to your google account for CocoDoc.
  • Edit PDF documents, adding text, images, editing existing text, mark with highlight, fullly polish the texts in CocoDoc PDF editor before saving and downloading it.

PDF Editor FAQ

Why did the US send a U2 spy plane into the Chinese drill area? Is the US luring China to start the fire?

US is a bad-faith actor and a bully.Back in 2014/2015, the ministries of defense of US and China had signed MOU regarding the rules of behavior for safety of air and maritime encounters (Link below). That MOU specifically addressing the scenarios for drills, etc. this MOU in place, US should not have sent the U2 spy plane into the Chinese drill area. The US has other means to monitor the drill, and U2 is quite obsolete anyway. The only reason US sent out the U2 was to humiliate China and to poke them. Sure, U2 can collect some additional data. And strictly speaking, U2 flies high enough to not be in the “air” but in “outer space”, so it can be argued that US had not literally violate the MOU. Yet, the timing, the action, and later the publicity given to such action all show that US had malicious intent and therefore was a bad-faith actor.To their surprise and horror, China put on a good show especially for them. The Chinese fired both DF-21D (the carrier killer) and DF-26 (the Guam killer) from Qinghai and Ningbo, and successfully hit the same target boat in the ocean. And all along, the Chinese let US take all the data it could with whatever they got including that silly U2 plane. Might as well let US know how exactly their marine got shut out of APAC region, right?I’d be surprised if the US dare to send any carriers to the 1st and 2nd Island Chains from now on. Imagine, being a bad-faith actor, and still be seen as a loser. That’s US.

Why is the China government pushing an anti-US agenda, whereas the People’s Liberation Army is pushing a pro-US agenda?

I can only speculate, but a few issues come to mind. Firstly, “cooperation” may be a code for infiltration. 1) China can asses the strength and capabilities of the U.S. military by joint exercises and communication. From the article:“ the two militaries are resolute on maintaining exchanges at all levels, conducting dialogue and negotiation through the China-US Defense Departments’ consultations on defense, the Asia-Pacific Security Dialogue and other mechanisms, so as to continuously deepen the construction of two confidence-building mechanisms, namely “the confidence-building measure (CBM) mechanism for notification of major military activities” and “the rules of behavior for safety of air and maritime encounters”.”This could lead to a one sided adherence in which China is notified of “major military activities” and only the U.S. follows the “rules of behavior for safety of air and maritime encounters”. Thus, reason 2): Binding the U.S. while flaunting the agreement. “Confidence - building” may just be code for “war by deception” should the U.S. be stupid enough to place credibility in the “confidence - building mechanisms” and thus relax its “guard”.Lastly, there is the long standing practice of intellectual property theft. What better way to discover new technologies and attempt reverse - engineering. At the minimum China uncovers the technologies it needs to counter.The old addage applies “if you can’t beat them, join them”.Of course, the U.S. is probably engaged in deception as well, displaying only well known capabilities and surveying the Chinese capabilities at the same time.I would tend to think Xi Jinping’s recent announcement for the military to “prepare for war” is the overriding agenda.

Has China’s attitude regarding the South China Sea reached the Indian shores?

China has warned India not to get involved in the South China Sea dispute and to focus on "preserving good economic ties" instead. The comments were made in China's state-run Global Times newspaper ahead of the Chinese Foreign Minister's upcoming visit to India.India should avoid ‘entanglement’ in South China Sea: Global Times publication says India should focus on economic cooperation instead.India should avoid “unnecessary entanglement” in the South China Sea dispute during Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi’s visit to New Delhi to prevent it becoming yet “another factor” to impact bilateral ties, a state-run Chinese daily said.Developments in the South China Sea are bringing India into a debate it generally maintains a distance from. India's shift in its maritime policies and a relatively vocal stand on the issue may be a signs of a future where India is willing to play a more direct role in the South China Sea.As laid out above, India's foreign policy would have to go through a drastic strategic change before it could commit to allocating resources in an area beyond its navy's primary area of interest. India has traditionally been continental in its defence strategy and will remain so, given the obvious troubles along its northern borders.When a US Navy guided-missile destroyer sailed near one of Beijing’s artificial islands in the disputed South China Sea this week, it was operating in a maritime domain bristling with Chinese ships.While the US Navy is expected to keep its technological edge in Asia for decades, China’s potential trump card is sheer weight of numbers, with dozens of naval and coastguard vessels routinely deployed in the South China Sea.Asian and US naval officers say encounters with Chinese vessels, once relatively rare, are now frequent, even at the outer edges of the controversial nine-dash line Beijing uses to stake its claim to 90 percent of the waterway.India’s Response to the South China Sea VerdictThe verdict by the Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) rejecting China’s ownership claims to 80 percent of the South China Sea (an area almost the size of India) was greeted with much satisfaction and glee in New Delhi.This was the first time that the entire basis of China’s “historical claims” (for example, the “nine-dash line”) was ruled to be invalid under international law by an international tribunal.The ruling not only has important implications for countries with unresolved territorial disputes with China but also impinges on India’s relations with Japan, the United States, ASEAN countries, and the international order. Coming as it did close on the heels of Beijing’s successful blocking—citing legal procedures—of New Delhi’s bids to gain entry into the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) and to have the Pakistani terrorist Masood Azhar banned by the United Nations Security Council (UNSC), the verdict was seen as a “damning indictment” of China’s flouting of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and Security Council resolutions against terrorism that Beijing had itself signed and supported.Chiding ChinaThe Indian government’s official reaction was prompt and measured, with the Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) issuing a statement on the day of the award that called on all parties to show the “utmost respect” for the UNCLOS.By stressing that “India supports freedom of navigation and over-flight, and unimpeded commerce, based on the principles of international law, as reflected notably in the UNCLOS,” the MEA statement was seen as chiding China. Emphasizing India’s specific national interest in the issue, it added: “States should resolve disputes through peaceful means without threat or use of force and exercise self-restraint in the conduct of activities that could complicate or escalate disputes affecting peace and stability.” The demand for “utmost respect,” the assertion of India’s vital interest in maintaining “freedom of navigation and overflight rights under UNCLOS” and aversion to “activities that complicate or escalate disputes”—all implied strong criticism of Beijing’s intention to reject the tribunal’s verdict and continue as before.As expected, China strongly condemned the verdict, declaring it null and void, and questioned the legality of the tribunal itself. Its response contrasted sharply with India’s graceful acceptance of a similar arbitration between it and Bangladesh two years ago, even though the verdict went in favor of its smaller neighbor. However, it was not India that reminded China and the world about the adverse maritime-delimitation arbitration it had accepted with Bangladesh but U.S. Assistant Secretary of Defense for East Asia Abraham Denmark. On the eve of the verdict, Denmark called on China to follow India’s example of resolving its maritime boundary dispute with Bangladesh by accepting the ruling of a tribunal appointed by the PCA. However, an enraged China vehemently denounced U.S. advice to follow India’s example claiming that there was “no comparison” between the two cases.At the same time, China’s desperation to dispel the widespread perception of its global isolation led state-run media and diplomats to make outlandish claims ( the support of sixty countries, including India. China’s Charge d’Affaires to India, Liu Jinsong, insisted (India with us on verdict, says China) disingenuously that India’s position on the South China Sea was “quite similar” to China’s own, as India had signed a “common position” statement on the issue in April 2016 in Moscow.The Russia-India-China trilateral joint communiqué by three foreign ministers did resemble the language used by Chinese foreign ministry statements: It called (Joint Communiqué of the 14th Meeting of the Foreign Ministers of the Russian Federation, the Republic of India and the People's Republic of China) for all disputes in the South China Sea (SCS) to “be addressed through negotiations and agreements between the parties concerned. In this regard, the Ministers called for full respect of all provisions of UNCLOS, as well as the Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea (DOC) and the Guidelines for the implementation of the DOC.” However, while Chinese officials deliberately highlighted the first sentence, Indian officialdom and media took comfort from the second sentence, which placed limits on the first. Apparently, faced with the challenge of balancing India’s interests between the Russia-India-China continental trilateral and the U.S.-Japan-India maritime trilateral, the “please-all” joint communiqué was an act of diplomatic tap-dancing by New Delhi. Despite Beijing’s claims of substantial global support, only ten countries—nearly all of them landlocked, poor, corrupt, and dependent on Chinese largesse—openly lent support (S.China Sea verdict 'null and void' with no binding force: FM) to China’s stance that it was “complying with the international law by rejecting the illegal tribunal’s verdict.”Much to Beijing’s chagrin, a joint statement (Joint Statement after the meeting Between Raksha Mantri and Japanese Defence Minister in New Delhi) issued by Indian and Japanese Defense Ministers following the annual Indo-Japanese Defense Ministerial Meeting two days later on July 14 again urged parties to “show utmost respect for the UNCLOS” and expressed the two countries’ “concern over recent developments” (Chinese actions such as the landing of planes on artificial islands and the tirade against the tribunal judges, coupled with threats to declare an air defense identification zone over the SCS). The language closely resembled separate statements issued by India’s MEA and Japan’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs on July 12. It was the second time that a joint Indo-Japanese statement mentioned the SCS territorial disputes and brought into sharp focus the evolving geopolitical alignments in Asia. In December 2015, a joint statement by Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe had called all parties to “avoid unilateral actions” in the South China Sea “that could lead to tensions in the region.” Tokyo and New Delhi also agreed to deepen their overall military cooperation by setting up a Maritime Strategic Dialogue and conducting the India-U.S.-Japan trilateral maritime exercise, Exercise Malabar, annually.The China-India Geopolitical RivalryThe growing Sino-Indian discord over the South China Sea adds to numerous stresses and strains in their bilateral relationship, still scarred by a border war of 1962 and unresolved territorial disputes in the Himalayas. With their growing economies and expanding geopolitical horizons, Asia’s giants now compete for forward presence and influence, especially as they scramble for energy resources. Since 2008, China has sent nearly two dozen naval expeditions to the Indian Ocean, ostensibly to counter piracy but implicitly to project power in the region. Given their unresolved disputes, China’s role as the largest arms supplier to India’s neighbors, and patrols by Chinese nuclear submarines in the Indian Ocean (which New Delhi considers its strategic backyard), India is understandably maneuvering for advantage in those spheres of influence that overlap with China. New Delhi has reached out to Asian neighbors but also to faraway countries in Beijing’s increasingly expansive shadow, most notably beleaguered Vietnam, the Philippines and Japan. India, much like Vietnam, has long perceived China as an irredentist and expansionist power. As noted strategic affairs analyst Brahma Chellaney observed (China’s Challenge to the Law of the Sea) recently, “China is not just aiming for uncontested control in the South China Sea; it is also working relentlessly to challenge the territorial status quo in the East China Sea and the Himalayas.” However, instead of launching “an old-fashioned invasion—an approach that could trigger a direct confrontation with the United States—China is creating new facts on the ground by confounding, bullying, and bribing adversaries.”Since 55 percent of India’s trade passes through the SCS, the Indian Navy has of late come to prioritize energy security and sea-lane protection. Since 2007, Beijing has been protesting a Vietnamese-Indian energy exploration project in the disputed waters of the South China Sea, and there have even been reports of Chinese warships confronting (Asia's Great Naval Rivalry) Indian naval vessels in the region. Ignoring Beijing’s warnings, India has publicly supported Vietnam and the Philippines, in particular in their disputes with Beijing, and continues to cooperate with Hanoi on hydrocarbon exploration in the South China Sea. In bilateral declarations with Manila, New Delhi has acknowledged the region as part of the West Philippines Sea and refused to endorse the Chinese discourse on the South China Sea. So India is clawing for influence, just as China is.As part of its “Act East” policy that dovetails with the “U.S. rebalance” and Japan’s “Proactive Contribution to Peace,” India has increased coordination, both military and diplomatic, with East and Southeast nations that also see China as a threat. New Delhi is currently negotiating the sale of the *BrahMos* cruise missile to Vietnam and frigates and patrol craft to the Philippines, while also forging military-to-military ties and economic and trade links with Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Singapore. At a time when ASEAN stands divided, India is placing itself at the center of regional relationships with Mongolia, Vietnam, the Philippines, Australia, Indonesia and Thailand as part of security architecture that would balance a rising China and enhance the safety and security of the global commons. In their high-level joint statements, both the United States and India have repeatedly declared their support for freedom of navigation and overflight, signaling that the Modi government is not shy about explicitly aligning U.S. and Indian strategic aims in the Indo-Pacific to counter China’s expansionist moves.For its part, China is increasingly uncomfortable with the prospect of India playing a greater role in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Beijing disapproves of India’s joint naval exercises with the United States, Japan, Vietnam, and Singapore in the East and South China Seas. Beijing has let it be known that would not tolerate another maritime power operating in the South China Sea—which its officials have described as a “core interest” in relation to state sovereignty, territorial integrity, and national security, and thus inextricably linked to the Communist regime’s domestic legitimacy and survival. Control over the South China Sea is also vitally important to the success of Xi Jinping’s Maritime Silk Road strategy.Debating Gains, Costs and OptionsIndian policymakers and commentators often accuse China of double standards. They emphasize that the UNCLOS is *not* an “unequal treaty” imposed on Beijing by external powers. For years China participated as an equal in negotiating the UNCLOS and consented to the dispute-settlement procedures therein when it became a party to the treaty. What’s more, China makes full use of naval rights and freedoms under the UNCLOS in seas and oceans where it is not a littoral state yet seeks a major role, such as in the Indian Ocean and the Arctic Sea, but it denies the same rights and freedoms to other countries closer to home in the East and South China seas.India’s old China hands also note a striking similarity between the tactics adopted by Beijing to extend its land frontiers in the Himalayas and those it uses to advance its maritime boundary in the South China Sea. Just as the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) periodically sends border patrols in the garb of villagers, yak graziers, and road-construction engineering teams to the Indo-Tibetan border to change the facts on the ground, coast guard, fishermen, and maritime militias have been dispatched to expand China’s maritime frontier in the South China Sea.Beijing engages in verbal trickery as well. Though from a legal standpoint, the usage of the nomenclature “South China Sea” does not amount to recognition of historical Chinese sovereignty, Chinese admirals and generals claim with a straight face that “the South China Sea, as the name indicates, is China’s sea” (Rear Admiral Yuan Yubai, Sep 2015), but “the Indian Ocean is not India’s ocean” (Captain Zhao Yi, Sep 2015; Gen Zhao Nanqi, 1993)—a particularly galling claim for New Delhi. Although Beijing claims about 80 percent of the South China Sea as its “historic waters” (and has now elevated this claim to a “core interest” akin with its claims on Taiwan and Tibet), China has, historically speaking, about as much right to claim the South China Sea for its exclusive use as Mexico has to claim the Gulf of Mexico, or Iran the Persian Gulf, or India the Indian Ocean. In other words, none at all.The continued reinterpretation (History the Weak Link in Beijing’s Maritime Claims) of history to advance contemporary political, territorial, and maritime claims, coupled with the Communist leadership’s ability to turn “nationalistic eruptions” on and off like a tap during moments of tension with the United States, Japan, Vietnam, the Philippines, and India makes it difficult for Beijing to reassure neighbors that its “peaceful rise” is anything like peaceful. Though Chinese leaders and diplomats still chant the mantra of “peaceful rise,” their body language tells everyone to get out of their way.Against this backdrop, India could not have hoped for a better PCA ruling. The verdict is a welcome development for India’s burgeoning economic and strategic interests (especially oil exploration off Vietnam) as the tribunal declared the South China Sea to be international waters. Strategically, the ruling provides legal and diplomatic cover for increased Indian naval engagement (including freedom of navigation operations and joint exercises) with other Southeast Asian countries in the South China Sea. A clear victory for the Philippines is also a shot in the arm for other claimants like Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Brunei should they choose to bring their cases to the PCA. Indian strategists believe that China’s attempts to split ASEAN would polarize the region resulting in “China versus the Rest.” The ruling should give India greater maneuverability to act as a balancing power or as a possible counterweight to China in the Indo-Pacific. Given China’s bases (Djibouti and Gwadar) and increasing naval forays in the Indian Ocean, the Indian Navy wants to stake out a presence in the South China Sea, mainly to counter China’s in the Indian Ocean. Not only that, the court ruling’s denunciation of Xi Jinping’s South China Sea policy raises questions about his judgement and leadership and could weaken Xi’s hold on power at the next Party congress. In addition, it could unravel Xi’s ambitious Maritime Silk Road through the Indian Ocean—another net gain for India.The tribunal’s award could be beneficial for India in other ways, too. China’s disregard for international law puts Beijing, which had earlier blockaded New Delhi’s NSG bid by citing the law, on the back foot. India, by contrast, stands on a higher moral ground for having obeyed the PCA’s award to Bangladesh on a similar issue. This development should bolster India’s case for NSG membership and undermine China’s efforts to rally countries like South Africa, Brazil, Ireland, and New Zealand against India in the next plenary meeting.More importantly, some Indian strategic analysts believe that the tribunal award, which demolished China’s historical claims regarding the “nine-dash line,” could also undermine China’s claims to Arunachal Pradesh. India, for one, has never bought Beijing’s historical argument on Tibet. If historical claims had any validity, then Mongolia could claim all of Asia simply because it once conquered the lands of the continent. The tribunal also concluded that, if China had historical rights to resources in the waters of the South China Sea, such rights were extinguished to the extent they were incompatible with the exclusive economic zones provided for in the UNCLOS. If one were to apply the same logic to the Sino-Indian boundary dispute, the PCA verdict would seem to bolster India’s case vis-à-vis China. As one Indian China expert, Srikanth Kondapalli,points out (After SCS ruling, China's Arunachal claim in choppy seas - Times of India): “In 1914, the Simla Conference, which resulted in the MacMahon Line, was initialed by Chen Yifan of the Nationalist government. While the document was not expanded into a treaty later (due to differences over the Sino-Tibetan boundary, *not* the Indo-Tibetan border), according to international law, initialing implies the freezing of negotiations.” So, Kondapalli argues against extending China’s historical argument “to cover Arunachal Pradesh, which can, at best be described as a semi-legal case.” The international tribunal would concur: law trumps history.Many Indian strategic analysts, still smarting from China’s obstructionist posture in international forums, want Beijing to stew in its own juice, and favor their government’s adoption of a tit-for-tat policy. Just as non-proliferation rules cannot be bent for New Delhi, they maintain, UNCLOS rules must not be bent for Beijing. The PCA ruling “establishes international legal order of seas and oceans and all parties must respect it.” For them, China’s rejection of the verdict is all the more galling when compared with India’s acceptance of an adverse UNCLOS ruling on the disputed maritime boundary issue with Bangladesh.Most believe that Xi’s China values territorial gains more than reputation costs. China’s growing economic strength, military might, and hyper-nationalism at home are spurring actions abroad that bring it into increasingly dangerous conflicts. For example, former Indian National Security Adviser S. S. Menon does not see the Chinese “backing down” any time soon and expects its “aggressive expansionism in the near future” to continue. In that case, Beijing’s belligerence would usher in the formation of a U.S.-led maritime coalition to maintain freedom of navigation and overflight in the Pacific.On the other hand, some of India’s China experts and former diplomats stress the need to dial down tensions, help China find the middle path through diplomacy and negotiation, and enable Beijing to step back and uphold the rules-based system. China-watcher Kondapalli wants (What the South China Sea verdict means) his country “to pursue a policy of mediation between China and the Southeast Asian countries for regional security.” Others caution against unnecessarily antagonizing or provoking China. Says former Foreign Secretary Kanwal Sibal: “China’s land threat to India and the strengthening of the China-Pakistan axis are much more serious for us than its maritime claims.” For retired Commodore C. Uday Bhaskar, an angry or petulant China that turns its back on mediation or international arbitration, and lashes out at its weaker neighbors is not a desirable outcome. He thinks (South China Sea Verdict: Instead of Predictable Anger, China Should Show Objective Restraint) that “India has more to lose than gain by ratcheting up tensions especially at a time when the Chinese could be probably be feeling hemmed in and isolated,” because “India after all does have vital interests in maintaining a peaceful and stable relationship with China given the extent of trade links, disparity in economic standing, existing border disputes, etc.” Having said that, nearly everyone wonders if the region’s future will be defined by adherence to international laws and norms or whether it will be determined by money and might.Alternative FuturesThe Hague ruling marks a definitive moment in the evolution of maritime law and Asia’s geopolitical order. The court case is over, but the dispute is not. The South China Sea, through which more than $5.3 trillion of maritime trade passes each year, is now the arena of a geopolitical poker game that will determine the future of regional order: Pax Sinica or Pax Americana. Washington seems as determined to preserve the U.S.-led liberal international order as Beijing is to change and modify it.The PCA ruling forces China to decide what kind of a power it aspires to be—one that upholds existing laws and norms or one that flouts them in naked pursuit of power, territory, and hegemony. Whether a major power becomes a great power or not is also determined by the reactions or acquiescence of others. The support of Gambia, Sudan, Pakistan, Laos, or Cambodia will definitely not make China a great power. So, the choice is clear: Beijing can either dial down tensions or double down on its disputes. China’s choices will shape Asia’s future. Should Beijing adopt a moderate foreign policy course and re-commit itself to international law and norms, the Asian security environment will improve. All Asian countries want to benefit from economic ties with China, but none want the return of a Sino-centric tributary order.Faced with an aggressive China, Asia’s major maritime and democratic powers—India, Japan, and Australia—will work (Turbulence ahead for South China Sea | GRI) in a more synchronized manner in a quadrilateral grouping with the United States. They will be backed by middle powers (South Korea, Vietnam, the Philippines, Malaysia, and Indonesia) which are increasingly worried about Chinese maritime behavior. They will cooperate closely with each other to promote and defend a rules-based order that does not advantage big and powerful nations at the expense of small and weak states. Over time, various bilateral, trilateral (such as Japan-Vietnam-the Philippines, the United States-Japan-India, Australia-Indonesia-India, India-Japan-Vietnam), and informal multilateral efforts to constrain China could coalesce into a maritime coalition or the “Indo-Pacific Maritime Partnership” (an “Asian NATO” by another name).If the Chinese dragon is seen as running rampant in lands and seas around India, a weak Indian tilt toward the United States would turn into a firm alignment against China.Web : PrepCue LearningBlog: Blog for detailed news, analysis, insights and updates for UPSC aspirants

Comments from Our Customers

I find the software very user friendly, even when I don't use it very often

Justin Miller