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How many Treaties of Paris are there?

Are you ready for a ride?If you do not like long answers, this one is definitely not for you. It is the longest I wrote on Quora so far.In total, I have managed to find 67 Treaties of Paris as well as two Peace Accords, eleven Conventions, five Protocols, one Charter, one Declaration and two Agreements - in total, 89 international agreements concluded in Paris (it seems that over the last decades the word “treaty” is out of fashion). My list is much fuller than anything you would find in an English or a French Wikipedia. I still might have missed a treaty or a convention. Any suggestions are therefore welcome.Treaty of Paris (1214) was signed on 24 October 1214 by Philip II August, the King of France, and Jeanne de Constantinople, Duchess of Flanders. It was the aftermath of the great battle of Bouvines, in which the French King managed to crush a united army of English, Germans and Flemish. Jeanne’s husband Ferrand was taken prisoner. The young woman (she was somewhere between 15 and 20 at the time) came to Paris to find King and signed a treaty. She agreed to demolish all fortresses in Flanders, give back all the property confiscated from the King’s supporters and appoint King-approved baillis (governors). In exchange, she would get her husband back. Flemish Estates (parliament) never ratified the Treaty. Jeanne’s husband spent 13 years in captivity.Treaty of Paris (1229) was signed on 12 April between Blanche of Castile, mother of the King Louis IX, and Raymond VII, Count of Toulouse. It marked the end of 20 years of crusades against the heretics in Southern France. Seeing his domains systematically looted, his people slaughtered, their houses burned, Raymond agreed to all the conditions. He agreed to join the fighting against the heretics, to destroy the walls of his capital, Toulouse, to marry his daughter to the King’s brother and to agree that after his death, all his land would be annexed to the Crown of France.Treaty of Paris (1259) was signed on 4 December between Louis IX of France (Saint Louis) and Henry III of England. After fifty years of military failures, the English Kings were still reluctant to recognise that they have lost almost all their domains in France. However, Henry, plagued by rebels at home, who received French assistance, agreed to back down. He renounced to everything save Gascony, part of Aquitaine, Ponthieu and Channel Islands and agreed to recognise the French King as his suzerain in his French domains.Treaty of Paris (1295) was signed on 23 October between Philip IV the Fair of France and the representatives of John Balliol, King of Scotland. It was a defensive alliance against England. The treaty started the Auld Alliance of Scotland and France that would continue until 1560. However, even after that date French residing in Scotland and Scots residing in France could automatically get dual citizenship (and many exiled Jacobites used the possibility in the 18th century). This disposition would only be revoked in 1906.We can see that in all four treaties signed in Paris in 13th century, France was the dominant party. So it was just natural that people came to Paris to bow to the French King.Raymond VII’s ratification of the Treaty of Paris (left). A WW1 propaganda poster (right).5. Treaty of Paris (1303). Signed between Philip IV the Fair of France and Edward I of England on 20 May, ended a nine-year war between two countries in a compromise way. The reason of this compromise was the great defeat inflicted on French knights by Flemish in the Battle of Golden Spurs in 1302. Gascony, seized by French, was returned to Edward, he recognised Philip as his suzerain, and two Kings decided to marry their kids. This measure of reconciliation would lead a very big war when the son of Edward’s son and Philip’s daughter will decide to claim the throne of France.6. Treaty of Paris (1310) between Henry VII of the Holy Roman Empire and Philip IV the Fair of France mediated by Pope was supposed to make them friends. It did not work.7. Treaty of Paris (1320) finally concluded the French-Flemish war.8. Treaty of Paris (1323), signed on 6 March, ended the war between the Count of Flanders and the Count of Holland. Louis of Flanders recognised the sovereignty of his rival over Zeeland.9. Treaty of Paris (1327), signed on 31 March, ended one more war between England and France. Badly beaten by the French, the English lost several provinces and had to pay a large war indemnity. 14-year-old Edward III, son of the French princess, did not appreciate this humiliation. Ten years later, he would start the Hundred Years’ War.10. Treaty of Paris (1355), signed on 5 January, ended the conflict between France and the County of Savoy. It involved a complicated exchange of lands between two countries. Besides, John the Good, King of France, renounced any claims to Geneva. He wanted his hands free for a big fight against the English invaders. The treaty allowed him to assemble a large force, that would be decisively defeated by the English next year.In 14th century, as we can see, it became a tradition that all treaties involving France should be signed in Paris. However, the 1323 treaty was an innovation because France was not a party to the treaty - and Paris still was chosen to sign it. However, because of the Hundred Years’ War, the tradition would be abandoned for almost a century and a half.When you are Edward I of England, conqueror of Scotland, Wales and Ireland, it is awfully humiliating to kneel to Philip of France for your French domains. But you have to do it. Edward III did not want to do it anymore.11. Treaty of Paris (1498). As Louis XII was preparing to invade Italy, Philip the Fair, Count of Flanders and son of the Emperor Maximilian, concluded a treaty with him (on 2 August), which meant he would not interfere with King Louis’s plans.12. Treaty of Paris (1515). On 24 March, Charles, the 15-year-old Count of Flanders, concluded alliance with Francis I, King of France. They agreed that he would later marry Francis’s daughter, the 4-year-old princess Renée. The marriage would never be concluded. Within four years, the young Count would become both the King of Spain and the Emperor of the Holy Empire, the strongest power in Europe. Charles and Francis would forever be enemies.13. Treaty of Paris (1600). Signed on 27 February 1600 between Charles-Emmanuel I of Savoy and Henry IV of France. The Duke of Savoy wanted to keep Saluzzo, a French possession he seized. Henry pressed him to sign the treaty. Back to Savoy, the Duke started a new war.14. Treaty of Paris (1623). France, Venice and Savoy signed an alliance against Spain. However, France did not fight Spain. Spain was struggling against a great Protestant alliance and Cardinal Richelieu feared to alienate French Catholics if he started fighting against His Catholic Majesty.15. Treaty of Paris (1626) was signed on 5 February between King Louis XIII and the Huguenots (Protestants) of the city of La Rochelle. They could preserve religious freedom but had to destroy two key forts and could not keep a war fleet. After this treaty, a new war erupted, leading to the capture of La Rochelle in 1628 and liquidation of the last Protestant enclave in France.16. Treaty of Paris (1634) was signed on 1 November between France, Sweden and Heilbronn League of Protestant princes in Germany. France promised them money and military assistance to fight Spain and the Holy Roman Empire. The treaty was never ratified because Swedish chancellor wanted better terms. A Franco-Swedish alliance would finally be signed at Compiègne a year later.17. Treaty of Paris (1635), signed on 25 February, established a Franco-Dutch alliance against Spain, both offensive and defensive. France entered the Thirty Years’ War.18. Treaty of Paris (1657) concluded by the Cardinal Mazarini and Oliver Cromwell meant an Anglo-French alliance against Spain. As a result, England conquered Dunkirk, later ceded to France.19. Treaty of Paris (1662) established a defensive Franco-Dutch alliance. During the Anglo-Dutch war of 1664–1667, France would also fight England.Siege of La Rochelle (left). Cardinal Richelieu and his cats (right).20. Treaty of Paris (1718), signed on 21 January between Philip of Orleans, Regent of France, and his brother-in-law Leopold, Duke of Lorraine and Bar, was just a landswap allowing for more contiguous borders of France and Lorraine (later in the century, Lorraine will become part of France).21. Treaty of Paris (1749), signed on 15 August, specified borders between France and Geneva.22. Treaty of Paris (1761) aka Third Family Compact, signed on 15 August, was an alliance between France and Spain, both ruled by Bourbon Kings. Spain honoured this treaty in 1761 and in 1779, entering wars with England to help France. It became obsolete during the French Revolution.23. Treaty of Paris (1763), signed on 10 February, ended the Seven Years’ War aka French and Indian War. France lost Canada, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Tobago and Senegal to Britain. It also lost Western Louisiana to Spain and Eastern Louisiana (lands between Mississippi and Thirteen Colonies) to Britain. Spain lost Florida to Britain.24–26. Treaty of Paris (1783), which ended the American Revolutionary War. In fact, there were three separate treaties, signed on 3 September 1783 in Paris. The Thirteen Colonies became independent and received all the former territories of East Louisiana. France gained Saint Lucia, Tobago and Senegal. Spain gained Menorca and Florida.27. Treaty of Paris (1783), signed on 8 October, was the American-Dutch treaty of amity and commerce.28. Treaty of Paris (1784), signed on 20 March, ended the fourth Anglo-Dutch War. The Dutch surrendered the Indian city of Negapatnam to Britain and allowed British to sail in their seas (it would lead to the establishment of British colonies in Singapore and Australia).29. Treaty of Paris (1786), signed on 21 May, settled territorial disputes between France and Wurtemberg.Family Compact. Allegory (left). The General Peace. English cartoon, 1783 (right).30. Treaty of Paris (1796), signed on 15 May between France and Piedmont, resulted from the first campaign of the young Napoleon Bonaparte. France obtained Savoy and Nice - and the right of passage through the territory of Piedmont.31–32. Treaties of Paris (1796) were signed on 7 and 22 May respectively with Wurttemberg and Baden, German states that chose to make separate peace with France seeing Napoleon’s prowess.33. Treaty of Paris (1796) was signed on 5 November with the Duchy of Parma that agreed to let French armies in its territory and pay a huge war indemnity.34. Treaty of Paris (1801), signed on 24 August, was a Franco-Bavarian treaty of peace and alliance. Bavaria has lost some lands because of having fought against Napoleon; thanks to this treaty, it would get other lands.35. Treaty of Paris (1801), mediated by France and signed on 4 October, ended the Russian-Spanish war. It was a weird war: no shot was fired during two years. Finally, Spanish and Russian ambassador agreed to restore the traditional amity of two countries.36. Treaty of Paris (1802), signed on 20 May, regulated new borders of Wurttemberg.37. Treaty of Paris (1802), signed on 25 June by Talleyrand and Mehmed Said Galip Pasha, ended the French-Ottoman war after the failure of Napoleon’s Egyptian campaign. Interestingly, this treaty used three systems of dating: the French Revolutionary calendar, the Islamic calendar and the Gregorian calendar.38. Treaty of Paris (1802), signed on 26 December between France and Austria, also dealt with territorial changes. Duke of Tuscany, brother of the Austrian Emperor, gave his territory to Napoleon and received a newly created Duchy of Salzburg in exchange. France then transferred Tuscany to the Duke of Parma, close relative of the Spanish King, because France wanted to keep Parma. In exchange for Tuscany, Spain surrendered not only Parma but Louisiana as well, that Napoleon would sell to Thomas Jefferson.39. Treaty of Paris (1806), signed on 24 May by Talleyrand and the representatives of the Batavian Republic, sanctioned the transformation of the latter into the Kingdom of Holland under Napoleon’s brother Louis Bonaparte.40. Treaty of Paris (1806), signed on 12 July by Talleyrand and the representatives of sixteen German princes, established the Confederation of the Rhine that replaced the Holy Roman Empire. Curiously, one of these sixteen princely states still survives today. It is Liechtenstein.41. Treaty of Paris (1810), signed on 6 January and mediated by Russians, ended Franco-Swedish war of 1808–1809. Sweden accepted to become part of the Continental Blockade against Britain. Swedes would elect renowned Napoleonic marshal Bernadotte to be their next King, in hopes he would guarantee French support for a new war against Russia. Bernadotte would ally with Russia and turn against Napoleon.42. Treaty of Paris (1810), signed on 28 February between France and Bavaria, dealt with exchanges of territory. As a result, Bavaria would lose lots of land in one place and get lots of land in another place.43–45. Treaties of Paris (1810) signed between Bavaria and Wurttemberg, Baden and Hessen and Wurttemberg and Baden, regulated their borders.46. Treaty of Paris (1812), signed on 5 March, established Franco-Prussian alliance against Russia. Prussia was obliged to assist Napoleon in his invasion of Russia, giving him half of its army, provisions, munitions and horses and wagons to transport them. A quarter of Prussian officer corps (300 officers) resigned their commissions when hearing of this treaty: most of them would go to Russia to help defend it against Napoleon, including a young officer Carl von Clausewitz who would become a famous military writer.47. First Treaty of Paris (1814), signed on 30 May, ended the war between Napoleonic France and the Sixth Coalition. Napoleon was removed from throne and replaced with Louis XVIII Bourbon. In general, due to Czar Alexander’s patronage and to Talleyrand’s skill, the conditions were very lenient. France kept some of its conquests and did not pay any indemnity.48. Second Treaty of Paris (1815), signed on 20 November, definitely ended the war between France and the Sixth Coalition. It was necessary because of Napoleon’s brief return to France (the Hundred Days). New terms were much harsher. France lost more land, had to pay 700 million francs in indemnities and was subjected to Allied occupation. It was also - why do I think of Donald Trump? - obliged to finance defensive fortification of its neighbours against itself. An additional article and an act signed on the same day had important consequences. The former was a declaration to stop the slave trade and the latter recognised neutrality of Switzerland.49. Treaty of Paris (1816) restored the Bonaire island to the Dutch after nine years of British administration.50. Treaty of Paris (1817), signed on 20 June by the representatives of European Big Five and Spain, gave the Empress Marie-Louise, Napoleon’s wife, three duchies in Italy - Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla to live peacefully with her lover.During Napoleon’s time, Paris was the capital of Europe. After 1815, France lost its leading role in European politics. That is why the next Treaty of Paris will be signed only four decades later.If you chop a piece too big, you may sometimes choke with it.51. Treaty of Paris (1856), signed on 30 March, ended the Crimean War between Russia and the alliance of Britain, France, Ottoman Empire and Sardinia. Russia lost South Bessarabia and its status of protector of Ottoman Christians (it was given to France). Both Russia and the Ottoman Empire were prohibited from keeping fortresses or war fleet in the Black Sea.52. Treaty of Paris (1857), signed on 4 March, ended the Anglo-Persian War. Iran had to abandon its plans to annex the city of Herat.53. Treaty of Paris (1857) between Prussia and Switzerland was mediated by France and signed on 26 May. The King of Prussia renounced to all claims to the Swiss city of Neuchâtel that belonged to Kings of Prussia since 1708.54–55. Treaties of Paris (1879) were signed on 14 and 21 August between Spain and respectively Peru and Bolivia, ending the war between these countries.56. Treaty of Paris (1898), signed on 10 December, ended the Spanish-American War. Cuba became independent. The Philippines, Guam and Puerto Rico were annexed by the USA. Spain received a $20 million compensation.57. Treaty of Paris (1900), signed on 27 June between France and Spain, settled the borders of Río Muni, the future Equatorial Guinea, and Río de Oro (future Western Sahara).58. Treaty of Paris (1918), signed on 17 July, defined relations between France and Monaco, barring the possibility of German princes becoming Monégasque souverains.59. Treaty of Paris (1920), signed on 28 October between France, UK, Italy, Japan and Romania, recognised Romanian annexation of Bessarabia. USA refused to sign the treaty. Finally, the treaty never came into effect because Japan did not ratify it.60. General Treaty for Renunciation of War as an Instrument of National Policy aka Briand-Kellogg Pact (1928). It was signed by most countries of the world. It should however be remarked that, as the war became illegal, signatories to the treaty started to invade other countries without declaring war.61–65. Paris Peace Treaties (1947) between Allies, on the one side, and Italy, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria and Finland, on the other side, formally established peace between these countries. The five allies of Nazi Germany had to pay reparations and, in some cases, surrender parts of their territory.66. Treaty of Paris (1951), signed on 18 April by France, West Germany, Italy and Benelux countries, established the European Coal and Steel Community.67. Treaty of Paris (1952), signed on 27 May, established European Defence Community. It never came into effect because France failed to ratify it (other five signatories did).Since Napoleon III, Paris has become a place for all kinds of treaties and conventions. I think people started coming to Paris to sign something simply because they liked to come to Paris.Hawaii, Cuba and Philippines happy about US domination. An American cartoon, 1899 (left). An anti-Communist poster for European unity, 1951 (right).Ok. So these were the Treaties of Paris. Now comes an Appendix. As if 67 was not enough.Peace Accords:1 (68). Paris Peace Accords (1973) aka Agreement on Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam, signed on 27 January by USA, North Vietnam, South Vietnam and Viet Cong, marked the end of active American involvement in Vietnam War.2 (69). Paris Peace Accords (1991), signed on 23 October, marked the end of the Vietnamese-Cambodian War.Lê Ðức Thọ and Kissinger in Paris. They were the main negotiators of the Paris Peace Accords of 1973. They were awarded Nobel Peace Prize but Lê Ðức Thọ declined it.Conventions:1 (70). Paris Convention (1858) united the Danube principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia into the United Provinces of Wallachia and Moldavia (later to become the Kingdom of Romania). The new country was to be an Ottoman vassal but to enjoy the guarantees of the Great Powers.2 (71). Paris Monetary Convention (1865) established the Latin Monetary Union, bringing currencies of France, Belgium, Italy and Switzerland to the same bimetallic (golden and silver) standard. Later, Greece also joined the Union. Other countries (Spain, Romania, Austria-Hungary, Peru, Colombia, Venezuela, Finland, Serbia, Bulgaria, Papal States) did not join but tried to conform their currencies to the LMU standard.3 (72). Metre Convention (1875) signed in Paris by representatives of 17 nations. The treaty set up an institute for the purpose of coordinating international metrology and for coordinating the development of the metric system. Ironically, United States were among the first 17 signatories.4 (73). Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property (1883) is still in force. It was one of the first international conventions on intellectual property, covering patent applications and trademarks.5 (74). Paris Convention for the Protection of Birds Useful to Agriculture (1902) was the first international treaty on protection of birds.6 (75). Paris Convention (1904) concluded by France and Spain specified the border between the French and the Spanish zones in South Morocco.7 (76). Paris Convention of 1919 aka Convention Relating to the Regulation of Aerial Navigation decided that every country owns its airspace and demanded that all aircraft be registered in one country or another.8 (77). Paris Convention (1920) providing for the relations between Poland and the Free City of Gdansk, signed on 9 November.9 (78). Paris Convention on the Organisation of International Expositions (1928) established the Bureau International des Expositions.10 (79). Paris Convention on the Protection of Birds (1950) had a purpose to protect the birds in the wild state as well.11 (80). Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy (1960) regulated liabilities and compensations in the case of nuclear energy accidents.12 (81). Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR), signed in Paris on 22 September 1992.13 (82). International Convention Against Doping in Sport which was adopted at the General Conference of UNESCO in Paris on 19 October 2005 and empowered the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA).Early aerial navigationProtocols:1–4 (83–86): Protocols of Paris (1941), signed on 27 and 28 May between Vichy France and Nazi Germany, granted Germany facilities in Syria, access to a railway in Tunisia and to ports in Tunisia and Senegal.5 (87): Protocol on the Termination of the Occupation Regime in the Federal Republic of Germany, signed on 21 October 1954 by West Germany, USA, UK and France, put the end to the occupation of West Germany.Charter:1 (88). Charter of Paris for a New Europe (1990), signed by a number of European countries, USA, Canada and Soviet Union, served as a basis for the establishment of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.Occupation zones of Germany (left). Soviet stamp dedicated to the Charter of Paris (right).Declaration:1 (89): Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness, signed in February 2005, contains a number of commitments from different countries on making international aid more effective.Agreements:1 (90): Gruber - De Gasperi Agreement, signed on 5 September 1946 by Italy and Austria, granted the German-speaking population of the Province of Alto Adige/Südtirol the right to autonomy and preservation of their language, cultural identity and customs.2 (91): Paris Climate Agreement, signed on 12 December 2015, addresses the issues of global warming, with every country taking obligations to limit the temperature increase.This map indicates per capita responsibility for current anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphereEDIT: Yes, in case there are question, I did not include any Treaty of Versailles (or Trianon, St Germain, Sevres, Neuilly, Meaux) to the list. Environs of Paris deserve a separate answer.EDIT 2: Thank you, Jesus Rueda Rodriguez and Bob Gluck for adding two more conventions to my list.

Will gasoline prices ever get back down to a "reasonable" price again (under $2.00/gal for regular)?

Does Sandi Arabia desire to pump the missing oil from Iran & Venezuela ?NOTICE :Gas prices are continuing on the rise for several reasons one including the USA president…actions … They will hit $100,00 very shortly due to shortage as China has increased by 80% purchases to supply the mainland market. India is also a very big consumer after Japan.There is a shotage of over 7 millions barrels per day. due to Iran & Venezuela embargos.Reasons for the oil shortage and price increase :1-Iran Embargo… Some production cannot be sold under the embargo USA.2- Venezuela Embargo Production under 1,3 millions barrel per day.3-Citgo USA under a possible seizure by Conoco-Phillips. ($ 2,1 Billons USD jugement4-PVDSA Curacao temporaly seized by Conoco Phillips5-PDVSA Aruba & Bonaire & Saint Eustanius maritime termina;l storage mixing tanks seized.6-Lybia problems with the maritime terminal loading ( should be corrected7-China has become the largest consumer of oil 10,millions barrel per day.8- Canada has bought out Kinder Morgan Trans-Mountain Pipeline project to sell to China rather than selling to the USA ..versus the Keystone pipeline at big discount.This may be eliminating in the near future Canada oil sales to USA.9-Canada Alberta tar sands are in a July-August maintenance shut down.There is a reality missing in the equation ; Oil is pumped by two dozen mass producers; including OPEP. China is taking the largest increase every year by over 5% .China imported 281.1 million tonnes of crude in the first eight months of 2017, equivalent to 8.44 million barrels per day (bpd), according to customs data.This is up 12.3 percent on the same period in 2016, or about 950,000 bpd.This makes China the major contributor to global demand-growth so far this year, given that the International Energy Agency expects world oil consumption to rise 1.6 million bpd in 2017 from 2016. The growth in imports from Angola had matched the overall rate, it would have meant that China bought 1.02 million bpd, meaning Angola has supplied an extra 30,000 bpd over what it would have if it has just maintained its market share.Imports from Russia were 1.16 million bpd in the first eight months, a gain of 13.2 percent. This works out to an extra 10,000 bpd over the steady market share number.Iran has lost 83,000 bpd in the first eight months compared to China’s overall growth rate, while Iraq has forgone 17,000 bpd.For exporters outside the OPEC and allies deal, Brazil has been a large gainer, with exports in the first eight months rising 41.8 percent to 480,000 bpd, which is 100,000 bpd more than if they had merely matched China’s overall growth rate.The standout is the United States, with China importing 128,000 bpd in the first eight months, a massive leap of more than 1,000 percent, and an extra 116,000 bpd over what imports would have been if the growth rate matched China’s overall increase of 12.3 percent in the first eight months.In some ways the Chinese oil import numbers are a microcosm of the issues in the global crude market.China shows that the burden of rebalancing the market isn’t being shared evenly by those party to the production reduction agreement.It also shows that the Chinese have been able to quite easily replace supplies from those producers curbing output.Iran embargo by President Trump has created a big shortage as production is down significantly. Tehran is getting hit from all sides. Washington is telling buyers to stop all purchases of the country’s crude, while OPEC and its allies are bowing to U.S. pressure to raise output and fill the gap. Iran may be left with few options beyond convincing China to buy more of its oil, risking over-reliance on what’s already its biggest customer.“Iran is in a really horrible position right now,” said Sara Vakhshouri, head of Washington, D.C.-based consultant SVB Energy International. “There’s not really much Iran can do to maintain its export level.”Before last week’s meeting of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, Iran had been lobbying its fellow producers to condemn President Donald Trump’s “unlawful” re-imposition of sanctions and resist U.S. pressure to increase the group’s production. It failed on both counts as Saudi Arabia and Russia interpreted a vaguely worded agreement as a license to pump an extra 1 million barrels a day, making up for production lost by other members.Losing powerran is irrelevant to OPEC,” said Olivier Jakob, managing director of consultancy Petromatrix GmbH. “The OPEC communique was vague and the message was supplanted by the Saudis and Russians. So you can see who is in charge here.”After being largely abandoned by its fellow OPEC members, Iran was hit even harder by its greatest foe. The U.S. State Department announced it was aiming to drive the country’s oil exports to “ zero,” rejecting the gradual approach to sanctions President Barack Obama’s administration adopted back in 2012.It’s not clear the U.S. will achieve a full halt, since even American allies are displeased with its unilateral abandonment of the deal that curbed Iran’s nuclear program.“Korea, China, Japan have already expressed they cannot go for zero,” Iran’s OPEC governor Hossein Kazempour Ardebili said in an interview on Wednesday.Halting purchasesThe U.S. Department of Energy softened the Trump administration’s hard line on Thursday, saying sanctions on Iran may leave room for some buyers to cut back gradually.Still, Brouillette acknowledged that his agency doesn’t oversee sanctions and that the Treasury department will ultimately decide how stringently they’re enforced. There are plenty of other signs the sanctions could take out a significant share of the 2.5 MMbpd the Middle Eastern nation currently exports.In an interview with Bloomberg television last week, Oil Minister Bijan Namdar Zanganeh said buyers including France’s Total SA and Royal Dutch Shell Plc have already halted purchases. Total’s CEO Patrick Pouyanne said last month that it was unthinkable for any international company to risk being excluded from the U.S. financial system -- the penalty for buying Iranian crude beyond Nov. 4.Total’s position illustrates the immediate danger to Iran’s crude exports, but also the long-term damage they could inflict on the country’s oil and gas industry. The company has started to pull out of the South Pars 11 natural gas project, the largest investment by an international energy company in the country.Iran’s crude sales are set to drop by at least 500,000 to 600,000 bpd this year, with the shortfall potentially much higher given Tuesday’s announcement from the State Department, according to Vakhshouri. John Browne, former BP Plc chief executive officer and current chairman of L1 Energy Holdings Ltd., anticipated a drop of as much as 1.5 MMbpd.Iran is running out of options on oilThe USA CITGO Reffinery assets are on the point to be seized;for a $ 2,4 Billions Interrnational jugement.PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela South America assets are seized in Curacao, Aruba, Bonaire,and The Saint Eustatius Fuel storage and Mixing / deep water supertankeder loading harbor and Saba.The infrastructures of Venezuela with all the oil they own , the second largest raffinery in the world. Venezuela has , a aluminum plant , steel plants, tire plants, Train plant, chemical plants, Industrial valve plants and many other industrial plants are operating at 20% or closed down.However . most are not in operating condition or totally dilapidated by the Maduro dictature. There is nothing operational left in Venezuela.CITGO TO POUR UP TO $600 MILLION INTO REFURBISHING MOTHBALLED ARUBA OIL REFINERYRefining is the process whereby hydrocarbons are transformed into by-products. PDVSA processes crude oil at 20 refineries: five in Venezuela and 15 in the rest of the world.Yes, BANKRUPCY of the Venezuelan state oil company PdVSA is a real option. This is what Minister Blok writes in a letter addressed to the House of Representatives in preparation for the Wednesday debate with the parliamentary committees for Foreign Affairs and Kingdom Relations.The minister also confirms in the letter that the European Union is considering: Blok writes about the situation of PdVSA: “Venezuela suffers a severe economic crisis (anticipated fall in GNP -15%), and very high inflation figures. Inflation was already more than 2000% in 2017, and the IMF estimates that the inflation rate has now increased to 13,000% on an annual basis. The accumulation of problems at state-owned oil company PdVSA, including corruption, collapsed production, major staff turnover and financial problems make the economic situation even more difficult and a possible bankruptcy a real option. Outstanding debts are still paid very slowly and more and more creditors are trying to get their money through seizures.The recent seizures by Conoco Phillips on PdVSA assets in the Caribbean parts of the Kingdom illustrate this. Approximately 90% of Venezuela's income comes from oil exports. Because Venezuela has to a large extent dependent on import for all kinds of goods including food, made possible by a high oil price, hardly invested in the diversification of its own economy.”Conoco Philipps' seizure of PDVSA Caribbean terminals "a disaster" for VenezuelaThe move by ConocoPhillips is part of an effort to fulfil a $2.04 billion arbitration ruling against PDVSA“This is terrible (for PDVSA),” said a source familiar with the court order of attachment. The state-run company “cannot comply with all the committed volume for exports” and the Conoco action imperils its ability to ship fuel oil to China or access inventories to be exported from Bonaire.At the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), Conoco had sought up to $22 billion from PDVSA for broken contracts and loss of future profits from two oil producing joint ventures, which were nationalized in 2007 under late Venezuela President Hugo Chavez. The U.S. firm left the country after it could not reach a deal to convert its projects into joint ventures controlled by PDVSA.A separate arbitration case involving the loss of its Venezuelan assets is before a World Bank tribunal, the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes.Conoco Phillips is going all out to recover $2 billion it was awarded in arbitration from Venezuela. First it froze the assets of Venezuela’s state-run oil giant, Petroleos de Venezuela SA, at Caribbean harbors that serve as key waystations for much of Venezuela’s crude exports. Now it’s pushing to do the same in the U.S. with the USA Citgo Refinery network in Europe and Asia. The fight pits the world’s biggest independent explorer against the holder of the world’s most significant crude reserves, and it’s exploring some surprising legal territory. Lawyers for PdV and Conoco Phillips met yesterday in the Dutch-controlled island of Curacao & Aruba to hammer out execution seizure of an 18 May local court order that partially lifted liens that the US firm had levied on PdV’s local assets in a bid to collect a $2bn arbitration award, all over the PDVSA CARIBBEAN REFINERY SYSTEM AND FUEL STORAGE AND MIXING STATIONSHow does PDVSA continue under seizures ???Manyproducts are obtained from oil, from extremely volatile gases and liquids like gasoline to very thick fluids such as asphalt and even solids such as paraffin waxes. In general terms, the basic petroleum derivatives are: gas, motor gasoline, aviation gasoline, kerosene, diesel, solvents, lubricating bases, paraffin, fuel oil and -&nbspThis website is for sale! -&nbspAsphalt Resources and Information. addition to these by-products, PDVSA supplies materials to petrochemical plants and manufacturing companies to produce synthetic rubber, synthetic fibers, fertilizers, explosives, insecticides, medicines, toiletries, and thousands of other productsDomestic Refining & DISTRIBITION SYSTEM PDVSA's domestic refining business consists of six refineries: Amuay, Cardón, Bajo Grande, El Palito, Puerto La Cruz and San Roque, located in different parts of the country.In 2015, the volume of crude processed in the National Refining System was 863 thousand barrels per day (MBD) (the transfer of 3 MBD of residual to the crude processed at Refinery El Palito, from Puerto La Cruz Refinery is discounted). In addition, 149 MBD of inputs for processes and mixtures were received. 1,012 MBD of products were obtained with this level of crude and inputs, of which 290 MBD correspond to gasoline and naphtha, 282 MBD jet and distillate, 294 MBD residual, 14 MBD asphalt, 5 MBD to lubricants and 127 MBD to other products.Natural Gas Liquids (NGL)By the end of the 2015 a production of 117 thousand barrels per day (MBD) was achieved and LPG purchases were made for 25 MBD, obtaining an availability142MBD.Today, Petróleos de Venezuela, S.A.does not maintains a solid presence abroad, with strong commercial relationships with its partners in each country as well as nations with great investment potential in the oil industry as every plant are not in operation or condition.PetroaméricaThe Government of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela has introduced the Petroamérica initiative for the energy integration of the peoples of our continent, within the framework of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA) and based on the principles of solidarity and complementarity of the countries concerning the fair and democratic use of resources for the development of their peoples.Petroamérica adheres to the guiding principles of ALBA: energy integration, solidarity, complementarity, fair trade, promotion of investments in Latin America, and special and differentiated treatment of nations according to their capabilities. Both initiatives share the historical and fundamental purpose of uniting the capacities and strengths of the countries that comprise them for the joint definition of broad lines of common political action among states that share the same vision on the exercise of sovereignty, while developing their own identity.PDVSA AMERICA, S.A.PDVSA created in 2006 the subsidiary PDVSA América, SA in order to implement the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela's energy policies in Latin America, the Caribbean and continent-wide, and position Venezuela as a regional energy power, while developing energy, political, cultural and economic relations favoring equity and social justice.PDVSA América focuses on strengthening the role of PDVSA as a reliable supplier of hydrocarbons and in establishing the market diversification strategy promoted by the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela for the creation of a new world energy map, where Latin America becomes an energy hub.One of the strategies for the joint undertaking of various projects is setting up joint ventures, mostly with state-owned companies, so that countries become engaged in their own development and for the optimization of execution capacity.PETROCARIBEIn September 2005, PDVSA founded the subsidiary PDV Caribe, S.A., the result of the PETROCARIBE Agreement. PDV Caribe plans and executes the activities of transportation, reception, storage, distribution and commercialization of hydrocarbons, along with the necessary infrastructure projects to ensure the sovereign management of the energy resources in member countries.In 2015, PDV Caribe and its joint ventures reviewed their progress in achieving their goals to visualize their next steps and optimize internal processes, with the aim of increasing management efficiency.PDVSA JOINT VENTURES & LEASES -UNDER THE PETROCARIBE AGREEMENT• Antigua and Barbuda: WEST INDIES OIL COMPANY LTD. / Storage mixing tanks facility / (PDV Caribe, S.A. 25%, Government of Antigua and Barbuda 51% and Fancy Bridge Ltd. 24%).Bonaire, Saint Eustatius Fuel storage and Mixing / deep water supertankeder loading harbor and Saba (The Netherlands) Aruba,refinery- stotage , Curacao storage & refinery.• Belize: ALBA Petrocaribe Belize Energy Ltd. (PDV Caribe, S.A. 55% and Belize Petroleum and Energy Ltd. 45%).• Dominica: PDV Caribe Dominica Ltd. (PDV Caribe, S.A. 55% and Dominica National Petroleum Company Ltd. 45%)• Grenada: PDV Grenada Ltd. (PDV Caribe, S.A. 55% and Petrocaribe Grenada Ltd. 45%).• Jamaica: Petrojam Ltd. (PDV Caribe, S.A. REFINERY/ 49% and Petroleum Corporation of Jamaica 51%).• Nicaragua: ALBA de Nicaragua, S.A. ALBANISA ( PDV Caribe, S.A. 51% and PETRONIC 49%).• Dominican Republic: REFIDOMSA - PDV,S.A. REFINERY/ (PDV Caribe, S.A. 49% and Dominican State 51%).•Saint Kitts and Nevis: PDV St. Kitts Nevis Ltd. (PDV Caribe, S.A. 55% and St. Kitts Nevis Energy Company Ltd. 45%).•Saint Vincent and the Grenadines: PDV Saint Vincent and The Grenadines Limited (PDV Caribe, S.A. 55% and Petrocaribe St. Vincent and The Grenadines SVG Ltd. 45%).• El Salvador: ALBA Petróleos de El Salvador (PDV Caribe, S.A. 60% and the Asociación Intermunicipal Energía para El Salvador ENEPASA 40%).• Haiti: SOCIETE D´INVESTISSEMENT PETION BOLIVAR, S.A. (Petión-Bolívar) (PDV Caribe, S.A. 51% and Haitian State 49%).•Suriname: PDV SURINAME, N.V. (PDV Caribe, S.A. 50% and SURFUEL, N.V. 50%).PVDSA CUBA / REFFINERY, Products and servicesPDVSA Cuba works together with Cuba Petróleo (CUPET) to increase the potential of the Caribbean energy market, in exploration and production (upstream), as well as refining and marketing (downstream) processes, to promote the social progress of the Caribbean and Central American peoples through free and democratic access to energy at a fair and reasonable price.The PDVSA Cuba office in Havana makes possible to offer more support and attention to the region and implement projects for the production and commercialization of lubricants, fuels and other petroleum products to Central America and the countries of the Caribbean Basin. It also coordinates technological exchange and training of human resources in the hydrocarbons sector.• Projects and goalsPDVSA Cuba plans to build a strategic storage center for residual fuels in Matanzas, in western Cuba, with a capacity of 600,000 barrels per day, and restart the Cienfuegos refinery and terminal, located in the central region of the Cuban archipelago. Upstream, studies of the energy matrix of Cuba will be deepened, especially with regard to exploration and production in the Economic Zone of Cuba in the Gulf of Mexico.Downstream, a lubricant bottling plant will be developed with the participation of the National Lubricant Company (Cubalub) and the logistic support of PDVSA.ConocoPhilipps' seizure of PDVSA Caribbean terminals "a disaster" for VenezuelaVenezuela is in the grip of a deep recession with severe shortages of medicine and food as well as a growing exodus of more than 4 million of its people.PDVSA and the Venezuelan foreign ministry with Dutch authorities said they are assessing the situation on Bonaire.Conoco’s claims against Venezuela and state-run PDVSA & CITGO….seizures“Any potential impacts on communities are the result of PDVSA’s illegal expropriation of our assets and its decision to ignore the judgment of the ICC tribunal,” Conoco said in an email to Reuters.The situation of PdVSA: Venezuela PDVSA may close three of four refineries The refineries under threat are the 310,000 bbl/day Cardon, the 187,000 bbl/day Puerto la Cruz and the 146,000 bbl/day El Palito, according to Ivan Freites, head of an oil union representing PDVSA workers. The three facilities account for roughly half of the nation’s domestic refining capacity.The 645,000 bbl/day Amuay refinery, which along with Cardon forms the 955,000 bbl/day Paraguana Refining Centre, is also in danger of indefinite closure due to equipment failures that have paralysed several processing units, Freites said.Low oil prices and an economy in crisis have left PDVSA desperately short of funds to invest in exploration and production, reducing the availability of crude feedstock for its refineries. Detractors of the state-run industry also accuse the government of mismanagement and insufficient transparency.Venezuela’s refining circuit is currently processing about 390,000 bbl/day, or 30% of its installed capacity, Freites said.According to the union leader, PDVSA is considering the closures after negotiations to lease the Amuay and Cardon refineries to state energy firms PetroChina and Russia’s Rosneft ended in failure.Under the proposed lease agreement, PetroChina and Rosneft would have been required to cover 100% of the estimated $10bn in repair and modernisation costs of both facilities.The ever worsening situation in Venezuela is of great concern.French Guiana’s offshore oil: profit trumps environmental protection?On the economic, social, humanitarian and political level, the country is slipping further and further. The election victory of May 20 fits into a series of elections with which the Maduro government has strengthened its grip on the elected institutions but at the same time has lost its legitimacy and support among the population. A solution to the deep political, economic and humanitarian crisis seems far away. The run-up to these elections was controversial. Intensive negotiations between the government and opposition about the preconditions, including the balanced composition of the electoral council, the restoration of the functioning of the national parliament, the opening of a humanitarian channel and the release of political prisoners, came to nothing in February 2018.The European Union and other members of the international community (such as the US and the Lima group) have vainly called on the Venezuelan authorities several times in the run-up to the elections to allow political parties to participate on equal terms, to reform the electoral commission, to reach the opposition on an election calendar and to comply with all international standards. The lack of this did not allow the participation of independent international observation missions. The attendance rate of 46% determined by the electoral commission is the lowest in decades. Maduro won 68% of the vote against 21% for Falcon. Falcon did not recognize the election results due to unlawful elections.Amuay refinery Venezuela world second largest refineryBy Praveen DudduThe 10 biggest oil consuming nations account for more than 58% of the world's total oil consumption per day. The United States is the world's biggest oil consumer, followed by China, Japan and India. Hydrocarbons Technology - The leading site for news and procurement in the hydrocarbons industry profiles the 10 biggest oil consuming countries based on average daily oil consumption in 2012.China largest increase in oil consumption by over 5% yearly.China’s oil consumption stood at 10.3mbd in 2012, accounting for about 11.7% of the world’s total oil consumption making it the second biggest oil consumer after the US. China’s oil consumption has more than doubled since 2000 and the consumption in 2012 increased by five percent compared to the previous year.China is also the second biggest oil importing country in the world currently and its net oil imports have steadily climbed up from 3.43mbd in 2008 to 8,44 mbd in 2017. China’s total oil production during the period increased from 4mbd to 4.4mbd and the country is likely to surpass the US as the biggest oil importing country in the next months.For these reasons China is now the largest in the world manufacturing E;ectric Bikes, motorcycles & Cars.Solar panels and Wind energy, now larger that the nuclear production , in order to reduce their dependance on the imported Oil.1-Minister Blok: Bankruptcy PdVSA is a realistic option2-Petróleos de Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA)3--Minister Blok: Bankruptcy PdVSA is a realistic option4-ConocoPhilipps' seizure of PDVSA Caribbean terminals "a disaster" for Venezuela5-PDVSA Puerto la Cruz/El Chaure Refinery6-PDVSA El Palito Refinery7-PDVSA Amuay Refinery8-PDVSA Cardon Refinery9-Saint CroixChart:10-The Collapse of Venezuela's Oil Production | AS/COA11 - Conoco's Fight With Venezuela Landed in Curacao: QuickTake14--List of countries by oil production - Wikipedia15--The 10 biggest oil consuming countries - Hydrocarbons Technology16--China crude oil import data show winners and losers from...17--Brent Falls Back On Saudi Supply Surge | OilPrice.com18--

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