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Are there people living paycheck to paycheck in Canada?

This is the reality of Canada, a recession is imminent and financial insolvencies/bankruptcies will rise to the maximum level. Rest assured the storm is on its way and going to stay for a long long time.This bubble economy, mismanaged country, where there a tremendous amount of wastage, frauds insurance fraud/unemployment fraud/workman compensation fraud/immigration fraud/list goes on and on.Once a very powerful country, now it is going to another Greece, it is a question of time.Read on digest and wait for the storm, it is just a beginning where 50 are already financially insolvent.Yes, indeed, a large population is living paycheque to paycheque,Bogus, lifestyles, a hollow society, who designed to live for the moment, in essence, a very selfish/self-gratifying society, revolves mostly about ME ME and More ME.Thumping their chests and live in false glory, leased cars, fancy dinners, vacation on loans, fancy coffee shops, live shows, alcohol, weed, drugs,Do not understand basic money management.The wrong mentality, the young generation knows most of them cannot make it in this new Canada, where there are no high paying union protected with rich benefits are gone gone gone. Might as well live for today and sink the boat.Why not: Canada gave chance to Karla Homolka and Paul Bernardo, why not to financially bankrupt will get another chance and one more chance OMG, another chance.Some people in some communities are experts in this game, one carpet store goes bankrupt and a new name erupts at the same location, the same owner but different name of the business.Extremely poorly managed country, full of frauds, scams, and mooching the systems.Never mind the people, the country itself eventually will be broke, it is coming.Here is the proof, the bogus lifestyles will be thing of the past, of writing nine million cheques to a terrorist and murder.Spending 100 s million in investigations, prosecuting the culprits of Air India flight 182 bombing, hatched, executed in Canada and killed 329 mostly Indo CanadianAll these expenses will show on the balance sheets, and borrow more money to stay afloat.Some senior Canadians are always in denial, they usually quote statistics, and they have almost zero knowledge of statistics. Some of the graphs and all flower stuff is made and feel good.The ground reality is most of the people are simply broke.More Canadians are filing for insolvency than we’ve seen since the financial crisis. What’s going on? | The StarBy Josh RubinBusiness ReporterThu., Jan. 2, 2020timer3 min. readHalf (48%) of Canadians are Less than $200 Away Monthly From Being Financially InsolventToronto, ON - Nearly one half (48%) of Canadians are $200 or less per month away from not being able to meet all of their bills or debt obligations each month, including 26% who say they already don't make enough money to cover their bills and debt payments, according to a new Ipsos poll conducted on behalf of MNP.Residents of Ontario (29%) and Quebec (29%) are most likely to say they already don't make enough to cover their bills and debt payments, followed by those living in Atlantic Canada (24%), Alberta (21%), British Columbia (19%) and Saskatchewan and Manitoba (17%).Moreover, it will take some time for Canadians to dig out of the non-mortgage debt that they have accumulated, with the average Canadian with debt saying it will take approximately 7 years before they are debt free, completely ignoring the 15% who believes that they will never be debt-free.Most likely to say that they will never be debt-free are residents of Atlantic Canada (28%), followed distantly by those in Saskatchewan and Manitoba (17%), Alberta (16%), BC (15%), Ontario (15%) and Quebec (10%).Among those who think they'll be able to climb out of debt, it will take Ontarians the longest (8 years on average), followed by those in Quebec (7 years), Atlantic Canada (6 years), BC (6 years), Alberta (6 years) and Saskatchewan and Manitoba (5 years).Most likely to be debt-free already are residents of BC (50%), and Quebec (45%), followed by those living in Alberta (39%), Ontario (38%), Saskatchewan and Manitoba (37%) and Atlantic Canada (31%).Given the amount of debt that Canadians hold, and the length of time that it will take many of them to pay off their outstanding debts, it's interesting to note that four in ten (43%) `agree' (17% strongly/27% somewhat) that they regret the amount of debt they've taken on during their life. A similar proportion (43%) agrees (15% strongly/28% somewhat) that they are concerned about their current level of debt.A positive note is that a relatively small proportion of the population appears more relaxed in their attitudes towards debt: just one in three (32%) agrees (6% strongly/26% somewhat) that debt is not a big deal to them - it's just a fact of life, while the vast majority (68%) of Canadians `disagree' (36% strongly/32% somewhat).Looking ahead in 2016...Interest rates are garnering a lot of attention recently, given rock-bottom interest rates in Canada. However, interest rates will rise eventually, and many Canadians (31%) `agree' (9% strongly/22% somewhat) that rising interest rates could move them towards bankruptcy. Further, three in ten (28%) `agree' (7% strongly/21% somewhat) that things are so tight that they anticipate needing to incur debt to pay regular household expenses in 2016.Given the findings of the research, it's not surprising that two in three (64%) `agree' (25% strongly/39% somewhat) that paying down debt is their number-one financial goal, ahead of saving, spending or other priorities. In fact, more generally, eight in ten (82%) `agree' (33%% strongly/49% somewhat) that paying down debt is more important, financially than saving.Looking to get some help with managing their debt responsibilities, nearly two in ten (16%) `agree' (4% strongly/12% somewhat) that this year they plan to look for information or consult a professional about financial insolvency or bankruptcy, led by Albertans (21%).Understanding Insolvency and Bankruptcy...When it comes to the terms insolvency and bankruptcy, Canadians appear to be not as strong in their knowledge as they could be: six in ten (60%) `agree' (21%) strongly/39% somewhat) that they are aware of the differences between insolvency and bankruptcy, while four in ten (40%) `disagree' (15% strongly/25% somewhat), admitting that they're not aware of the difference.Moreover, many are unaware of the resources available to them, as only a slim majority (55%) `agree' (16% strongly/40% somewhat) that they would know where to turn if they were to become financially insolvent, while nearly half (45%) `disagree' (20% strongly/25% somewhat).Despite some gaps in their knowledge, four in ten (43%) Canadians `agree' (17% strongly/26% somewhat) that they personally know someone who has become insolvent, with Quebecers (51%) and Atlantic Canadians (47%) being more likely than those in Ontario (42%), Saskatchewan and Manitoba (40%), Alberta (40%) and BC (37%) to say so. For more information from MNP, visit One in Three Canadians Feel Rising Interest Rates Could Push Them Towards BankruptcyThese are some of the findings of an Ipsos Reid poll conducted between January 26 and January 29, 2016, on behalf of MNP. For this survey, a sample of 1,582 Canadians from Ipsos' online panel was interviewed online. Weighting was then employed to balance demographics to ensure that the sample's composition reflects that of the adult population according to Census data and to provide results intended to approximate the sample universe. The precision of Ipsos online polls is measured using a credibility interval. In this case, the poll is accurate to within +/ - 2.8 percentage points, 19 times out of 20, had all Canadian adults been polled. The credibility interval will be wider among subsets of the population. All sample surveys and polls may be subject to other sources of error, including, but not limited to coverage error, and measurement error.For more information on this news release, please contact:Sean SimpsonVice PresidentIpsos Public [email protected] is doomed under Trudeau and headed for a recession says Kevin O’LearyMeet the Canadians who are scrambling to survive on part-time work and low wages. Watch the full report here: ...Canada’s Working Poor0:36 / 2:37Video: Majority of Canadians live paycheque-to-paychequeStatistician generates very good and very gloomy charts, depending on their audience.Any chart based on Averages is a feel Good, for the general audience, you dig deep what it means, then you find out it is nothing but skewed and misleading data in a nice picture.The following Chart is a lot of horse shit for ordinary people who cannot understand the crafty method of showing the green side of the rotting farm.Average means nothing, For example, two neighbors on the street one have zero and the second has 150000 and the third one in debt say 40000, a cunning statistician will show the average income of this street is 0+150000–40000/3 is 40000,My answer is =B.S.One is broke, one is living day to day and one is okay, therefore this street is a mixed bag, between a flat, broke to the middle class. This not average 40000 it is from financial insolvent to lower middle class.I know how to muddy the water with fancy graphs, I have a reasonable knowledge of Statistical analysisSam Arora, M.Sc. U of Punjab, India, M.Sc. U of Guelph, Canada,Here is the miss leading information some Canadians are living the fancy dream, don't worry be happy.This graph means some people have accumulated tremendous wealth, and when the other half is broke, which means, although average comes out a very nice picture, it does not show the dark side of the 50 percent who is flat broke.These kinds of data are made for political figures for votes or fooling the public. I call feel-good charts.Anyway, this chart has no meaning, simply shows, the ground reality is 50 have zero in their account, and the rest of wealth is unevenly distributed.AndThat is why: Basically most of the Canadians work all life and have nothing to show for it.Why???It means, people who are on the upper end, they take the upper layer of rising cream on the milk, and rest cream thins out as you go bottom of the glass. (This stratification happens in unhomogenized milk). That why homogenization is done in milk to distribute fat.Feel Good Chart:This chart is misleading, it made to fool the public or let us say feel good, chart, and people who know statistical science know this gimmick. I also have used such charts depending on my audience,This chart is useless, it does not tell the true story:This chart is a lot Horse Shi@ it has no meaning, the law of averages fails/sinks a lot of people.Canada’s Economy and Household Debt: How Big Is the Problem?RemarksStephen S. Poloz - GovernorYellowknife Chamber of CommerceYellowknife, Northwest TerritoriesMay 1, 2018Available as: PDFIntroductionShakespeare wrote, “Neither a borrower nor a lender be.” Well, that may have been reasonable advice back in Hamlet’s day, but it is hard to imagine a modern economy like ours functioning under that dictum.For most Canadians debt is a fact of life, at least at some point. Borrowing can help someone get a higher education, or buy a new car, or purchase a home. Simply put, debt is a tool that allows people to smooth out their spending throughout their life.The amount of debt held by Canadian households has been rising for about 30 years, not just in absolute terms but also relative to the size of the economy. At the end of last year, Canadian households owed just over $2 trillion. Mortgages make up almost three-quarters of this debt.While debt is indispensable for our modern way of life, it has been a growing preoccupation for the Bank of Canada for several years now. That is because high debt levels can make us vulnerable to negative events—individuals as well the entire economy.There are two ways to look at this. Traditionally, our focus has been on the vulnerability of Canada’s financial system arising from elevated indebtedness. This means analyzing how our banks would manage a serious economic recession with high unemployment and increasing debt defaults. But the Bank is also focused on the vulnerability of our economy to rising interest rates, given high household debt. There is little doubt that the economy is more sensitive to higher interest rates today than it was in the past, and that global and domestic interest rates are on the http://rise.So, today I want to talk about household debt in Canada—the dynamics that led to its buildup, how big a problem it is for Canadians now, and how we can manage the risks in the years ahead.How did we get here?Two trillion dollars of debt is a big number. Let us try to put some context around it. A common way to measure household debt is to compare it with the amount of disposable income people have. In Canada’s case, household debt is around 170 per cent of disposable income. In other words, the average Canadian owes about $1.70 for every dollar of income he or she earns per year, after taxes.That ratio is a Canadian record, and up from about 100 per cent 20 years ago. Although this ratio is on the high side, other economies such as Sweden, Norway and Australia have even more household debt relative to disposable income.This international comparison reveals some common factors. Like Canada, the countries I just mentioned have all seen decades of steadily rising house prices. They all have high rates of homeownership and deep, well-developed mortgage markets. Like Canada, mortgages in Australia are typically amortized over 25 to 30 years. In Norway and Sweden, you can find mortgages where the homeowner is only making interest payments, and the principal is passed on from one generation to the next.Aspiring to own a home is part of our culture. It is also a way to build wealth for the future, as house prices have tended to rise faster than incomes. My colleague, Deputy Governor Larry Schembri, took an in-depth look at the drivers of house prices in a speech in 2015. He found many factors working on both supply and demand to push prices up.On the supply side, Canada is a highly urbanized country, and many of our cities have land-use constraints that limit supply, such as green belts and other zoning restrictions. Geography, in the form of mountains and water, also helps to limit supply and support prices.In terms of demand, several factors have reinforced an extended trend toward higher prices. These include demographics and a long period of low long-term interest rates. But the point I want to stress here is that when you combine a strong desire for homeownership with rising house prices, you will naturally find increasing levels of debt.Canadians' mountain of household debt is rising againCanadians’ mountain of household debt is rising againcanadian debt to income ratio 2019canadian debt to income ratio 2019A few other flimsy and weak systems: Health care workers, who are close to the system. They all know it is standing on the sand.It is the myth that it is free, no sir, no madam, nothing is free, people who are working and paying taxes, ask any qualified accountant he/she will tell you how much of that tax goes to health care. Funny thing is whether you use it or not.Education is not free: Ask any accountant he/she will tell you what are you paying for the education part whether you use or not.Statistics 101 for intelligent people.Disclaimer: Statistics 101, our boy-trapped in an adult body PM and his cronies would not understand a thing, about this curve.Normal distribution /aka Bell shape curve.bell shape normal distribution curvebell shape normal distribution curveIn a perfect world this should be the distribution of wealth in Canada, as we know from ground reality, left half of the curve is flat broke.In other words, wealth is unevenly distributed in rest of half, or skewed to the right.This country is not standing on a solid ground/foundation, it means we have country, of haves and haves not.In other words a country is made of Insanely rich, ultra rich, rich and upper middle class, middle class,And rest 50 percent hand to mouth, because we know 50 percent are standing on sandy foundation.AndIt is not surprising, because that is what mismanaged, country riddled with frauds makes poor more poor and wealthy more wealthy.That is why a contry with extremely heavy taxed population, insurance upon insurance, with no industrial base.Writing cheques to terrorists, and cleaning the shit, brought by them, with extreme social burden of family violence, drugs, alchohol and frauds.That is why Canada is moving towards similar situation like GREECE, where their Magician Statistician fooled the world.Normal Distribution: Right and Left Skewed Graphs - Expii

Which is the best online Payroll system in India, preferably with their office in Ahmedabad?

ours is one of the best Payroll best online service provider in India having offices almost all important cities of India .Pl visit our web site for any query , please contact on whats app / viber —Nirmal K Biyani —919331000588EasyPAY.web - Web based Payroll Management SoftwareEasyPAY.web is very easy, flexible and user-friendly Web based Payroll Management software that takes care of all your requirements relating to accounting and management of employee’s Payroll. This versatile, user friendly, package, offers user defined Earning / Deduction / Loan Heads & Calculation Formulae / Tables. The package generates all the outputs & statutory reports required by a Payroll application.PresentationScreen ShotDownload DemoDownload BrochureDownload Sample ReportsBuy OnlineKey Feature Details:Flexible Structure building capability of Earnings & DeductionsFlexibility to add or modify any number of Salary Components - Earnings & DeductionsUser Defined Entry Field with unmatched flexibility for Formula, percentage or Customized CalculationTaxable & Non Taxable Earnings for Income Tax CalculationsPayslip / Non Payslip ComponentCalculation based on AttendanceMonthly or Yearly PaymentsFrequency of Salary HeadAlso compute various other components that do not appear in PayslipLeave & Attendance ManagementLeave Rules can be definedYearly Credit of Leave/ Pro rata basisMonthly Increment of Leave on Pro-rata basisCarry forward facility for balance leaveEncashment of Leave / Encashment In excess of LeaveLeave Utilizes & Balances can be checkedCL, PL, SL, Compensatory & Customizable LeavesAutomatic Leave payout on termination of Employees (in Full & Final Settlement)Swipe card / Attendance machine if any can be linked to our softwareAttendance ArrearsMonthly Attendance Register & Yearly Attendance SummaryAttendance / Leave LedgerSubmission of online Leave Application and supporting workflow.Loan & Advance ManagementUser Definable Loans/Advances (Multiple)Loan Disbursement option with EMI optionAutomatic recovery of EMI & stops automatically once the Loan amount is totally recoveredAuto calculation of Interest on Loans based on Flat Interest, Reducing BalanceLumsum recovery of LoanInterest free Loan Perquisites as per Income TaxLoan Recovered, Loan Balances & Loans History – Employee wiseLoan Ledger.Online submission of Loan Application and supporting workflow.Payroll ProcessingInput information for all newly joined employees and resign left employeesCreate a new payroll month & Process SalaryOver-ride facility for any Salary componentsSalary on Hold & Freezing of Salary in case of Termination of EmployeesProcess by Exception - you only need to enter Pay and/or deduction information when there are changesPro-rata calculations for employees based on AbsenteeismProcess & Print Payslips for groups or for selected employeesLock month facility to avoid changes in Processed DataSalary Reports (Payslip & Salary Sheet)Automatically calculates all the income, deductions & Company Contributions as per the requirementRegular Payslips (with Logo) can be viewed or EmailedReimbursement Payslips can be viewed or EmailedUser defined Salary Sheets can be viewedGenerates Cash / Cheque / Bank Transfer ListGenerate Bank Statement, Direct Electronic Bank transfer files & Covering Letter for BanksYTD salary Sheet & Summary of each employeeSeparate Payslips can be generated for Arrears, Medical, Reimbursement & LTBank TransferBank Transfer Statement facility available for all the banksSoft copy format also available in Excel or any format specified by different banksBank Transfer Statements can be generated for both Regular, Reimbursement Payments & Supplementary PaymentsCovering LettersCheque / Bank Transfer / Cash ListReimbursement ManagementMultiple Reimbursement Components like Medical , LTA & Customizable Reimbursement ComponentsUpper limits can be specified – Employee wise or Grade wiseAnnual Limits or Monthly AccrualsOpening Balance, Entitlement, Amount Reimbursed and Balance amount can be checkedReimbursement Payslips, Bank transfer statement for Reimbursement ComponentArrears CalculationArrears calculation for any previous period / Retrospective effectSeparate Payslips can be generated for the Arrears ComponentsBank transfer statement for Arrears ComponentOther PaymentsOvertime CalculationGratuity, Bonus & Exgratia CalculationReimbursement - Medical, LTA or any other user definable reimbursementSupplementary PaymentsMonthly Reconciliation - allow us to compare the changes in the pay components from last month to this month or for any number of monthsPF Calculation & ReportsUser defined PF Rate of Deduction for Employer & EmployeeEmployee & Employer ContributionAutomatic Bifurcation of EPF & EPSPF applicability check at Employee LevelOptions to Limit Maximum Salary for PF DeductionForm 5, 10, 12A, 3A, 6A, Challan & Reconciliation StatementESIS Calculation & ReportsUser defined ESIC Rate of Deduction for Employer & EmployeeESIC applicability check at Employee LevelESIC Register, Form 5, 6 & ChallanProfessional TaxUser definable State wise SlabPT applicability check at Employee LevelForm III & ChallanIncome Tax ManagementAuto calculations of Exemptions & Deductions and compute income tax payable for the entire year & the tax to be paid this monthAuto calculation of TDS based on ProjectionsIncome Tax Projections with the options to deduct projected tds from Monthly SalaryPrints Form 16, 12BA & Online Challan 281Quarterly e-TDS Return as per the NSDL formatIncome Tax Projections can be emailed in PDF formatFull & Final SettlementEmployees Full & Final settlement can be prepared based on resignation of employees either in the current month or in the previous monthAutomatically calculates outstanding Loan balances, Notice pay and Leave Encashment , Gratuity and recovers all Loan balances and Income Tax.Generates Full & Final Settlement Calculation sheet for all the calculations doneUser Defined ReportsUser Defined Reports with the option to choose from the available field, user can define his own customized columnar reportsSorting, Grouping, Sub-total, Grand-total & Conditions can be definedReportingOutput reports to screen, printer, MS Word & ExcelOption to preview Payslips / Salary Sheets or any other reports on screen before final printingPrint Transaction & Master History for any periodGenerating report is made easy with an advanced filter function to select the relevant employees or groups for the reportPrints any of our report for the previous periods.Data Import (Masters, Salary & Leave Record)Employee & Payroll Data if available in Excel can Imported to our softwareHR FunctionsGeneral InformationPersonal InformationAddress/ Contact detailsEmployee QualificationFamily Members/ Emergency contacts/ PF Nominee/ LIC Nominee/ Gratuity NomineeWork ExperiencePassport/Visa detailsLIC detailsHobbiesAchievementsVehicle/ Driving Licence detailsEmployee TrainingsEmployee Appraisals/ Questions/ Question Groups/ Questionnaire DesignerEmployees Documents/ Photos / AttachmentsEmployee Targets/ CommitmentsEmployee SkillsComplete Tracking of Employee Movement between Branches Departments/ Grades/ DesignationsVarious ReminderReimbursement & Claim ManagementCreation of different reimbursement heads.Employee can submit Reimbursement claim online.Employee can attached soft copy of his reimbursement bills.Reimbursement balance, entitlement, Summary, LedgerApproval Workflow – Accepted & Rejected with auto mail IntimationOnline TDS Declaration ManagementEmployee can submit Income Tax Declaration OnlineEmployee can attached soft copy of his declaration proof.Income Tax projection report – Projected & Actual BasisApproval Workflow – Accepted & Rejected with auto email IntimationTax PlannerEnter the Investment details and get the instant projections for TDS.Tax planning can be done with this tool easily, by testing various combinations of testing and get the best combination.User RightsUsers can be createdUser Level Rights can be created and managedRole based Security Model/ Assign rights to Payroll Officers for Managing different groups of employeesSoftware ArchitectureCompletely Web based productDesigned using State of art technology. The Official Microsoft ASP.NET Site 3.5 + MS SQLSoftware installation on clients machines are not required.All authorized personnel can login to the system and do the required functionality as per their rightsAudit TrailsWorkflowNewsAnnouncementsCompany DocumentsFAQKioskPollsQuerySurveysLeave ApplicationReimbursement RequestTDS DeclarationEmployee Self Service ModuleEach employee is provided with an online accountEmployees can login and view theirPayslipsYearly Salary RegisterLoan / Advances Recovery/ BalanceReimbursement Payments / Balance / StatusIncome Tax ProjectionsSubmit their Income Tax DeclarationsSubmit Leave ApplicationSubmit Reimbursement Bills.ESS gives employees direct access to their month-end / year-end paperwork. 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How do you get good letters of recommendation?

These and more resources are part of pdf series:ALL THE GRE, GMAT and IELTS Preparation Material You'll Ever Need!Introduction: Applying for graduate school can be tedious and nerve-wracking, and perhaps the worst step is getting good recommendation letters. But the process can be survived, and I can tell you how.Unfortunately you can't write your own recommendation letters (wouldn't be ethical), but if you get started early during your senior year of college and stay focused and organized, you will find that you can substantially influence what goes into the letters your references write, and the ultimate strength of those letters.I have seen more than 1,000 recommendation letters,so perhaps I can offer some tips to help you get the best recommendation letters possible for graduate school applications.WHY do you need strong recommendation letters?At many institutions, recommendation letters--usually three are required - are just as important in graduate school admissions process as your undergraduate GPA and your scores on the Graduate Record Examination (GRE).The letters provide the admissions committee with proof of some of the things you will declare on your resume and in your "Statement of Purpose" essay required by most schools. If you've cultivated relationships with professors at your school, their subjective appraisal of your skills and traits will go a long way toward helping you get admitted to graduate school.Often selection committees will use the numeric figures (GPA, GRE) to make initial cuts in the applicant pool, and then, during the most intense phase of the competition (and it is intense), the committee will look to your recommendation letters for convincing endorsements. Most programs also have a form that your references must fill out, answering short questions about your potential for successful grad school coursework, and then the recommenders are asked to rank you in comparison to other students they have taught over the years. Don't worry, this isn't as bad as it sounds.Just so you know, graduate schools look for:Intellectual development through collegeAptitude for independent thinking and researchAnalytical abilities and writing skillsLeadership or creative qualitiesYour references need to support their comments with anecdotes or specific examples of your performance as an undergraduate.That kind of specificity of detail makes for good,convincing writing. If the professor can offer only generic bromides such as "she was a fine student, never missed class and was always punctual and attentive," then admissions committee members will recognize that this professor doesn't know the student very well.WHEN should you ask for recommendation letters?You will find that many graduate schools set an application deadline in November or December.These are hectic months for professors. The semester is driving toward an end, the holidays loom ahead and term papers and final exams are streaming in, waiting to be graded (and you thought only the poor students suffer end-of-semester stresses). So, anticipate these pressures and ask for letters early - in September.Leave the writers at least three weeks to prepare the letters.Two weeks might force the writers to do a shoddy rush job, and four weeks might tempt them to doze off and forget where they put your application forms. Three weeks seems about right. It always strained my patience when a student sprinted into my office, splashed a half dozen application forms across my desk and asked, "Professor, could you please do these grad school reference letters for me by, maybe,uh, like, next Monday."I always stifled my impulse to reply, "Yes, maybe, uh, like I will do that just as soon as I finish sticking your skinny neck under a guillotine!" But I knew the letters were important, so I always agreed to do my best to help students meet deadlines, figuring that was part of why the university paid me.Because professors tend to be preoccupied with their own academic work, it's a good idea for you to remind them, gently, about one week before your application deadline,that you need them to finish your letter. Remind them again, as the deadline closes in. Most professors will respond to that prodding in a friendly fashion. They know their letter is essential, and they once went through the same anxiety-producing process of tracking down letters and preparing portfolios and so on. Be assertive in a friendly way, until you know their letter is in the mail.The key to the whole process of getting the best recommendation letters for your graduate school application is for you to get started early; carefully organize your materials so that you can orchestrate what each letter-writer discusses; and be sure to place into their hands enough specific information that their task will be made easier and their letter will be far more effective once it reaches the hands of grad school officials.Who can write the best recommendation letters for you?You do not necessarily want to seek out your department's most prestigious professors to write you letters. Instead, find those who can comment specifically on who you are as a person and student. Schools won't recognize a professor's name, but they will recognize his or her passion for your future.It helps if the professor has taught graduate classes, and can compare your potential to the abilities of his or her own previous grad students. Often the instructor who knows you best is a grad student who has taught you in a course, but you are better off finding veteran professors who have experience writing recommendation letters. If you have completed an internship -especially one related to the graduate field you wish to pursue - then ask for a letter from the person who supervised that internship (an editor, an office manager, a research scientist you assisted, etc.). While not necessary, it would help if that person has a graduate degree and thus understands what grad school requires of students. You would be wise to include only one reference who is not a professor.Give careful thought to the individuals you choose to write your recommendation letters.They could determine your future.Most professors will not take the responsibility of writing a letter for you if they anticipate giving you a negative appraisal. But don't let a "no" depress you. That person may be fighting a deadline for a book; she may be caring for sick family members; she may have a crumbling marriage; she may be overwhelmed with committee work; she may feel that she doesn't know you or your work well enough to write a good letter; or she may believe that you really should be applying for a job flipping burgers at the Dairy King. Don't spend five seconds worrying about this situation. You are better off finding a reference who is sanguine about your future in grad school. Move on to your next choice.How should you ask for a recommendation letter?E-mail your professors and request a meeting to discuss your grad school plans. Ask in a tactful but direct way, "Professor, would you be able to write a strong recommendation letter when I apply to grad school?" Try to determine from their response if they will give you lukewarm or enthusiastic support.What do your letter-writers need from you?Here's where you can seriously influence the contents and effectiveness of the recommendation letters.First of all,try to arrange it so that the letters complement rather than merely echo one another. This can be achieved in part through selecting which particular items you give each reference before they begin writing, and helps tell more of a complete story about you.Have one professor write about the quality of your research and term papers, and perhaps have him mention any study abroad experiences; have another address your oral communication skills, leadership abilities, moral character and personality; have a former internship supervisor talk about your work habits, the nature of your internship, your motivation, and what you contributed to the company or organization where you interned. If you worked to help finance your way through college, this last individual could mention that. You might simply make a bulleted list of the specific things you'd like a particular letter-writer to address, and add are quest: "If you can, please discuss these topics in your letter."Make sure your references fully understand your career goals.Talk to them about this, and give them a copy of your "Statement of Purpose," where you further elaborate on your professional objectives. Try to "aim" your letter-writers specifically toward the kind of graduate program you're seeking. If you are applying for grad study in biology, for example, you will want one of your writers to lay special emphasis on your experience as a lab researcher. If you are seeking a grad degree in psychology, you might want extra space to be devoted in a letter to describing your interpersonal abilities. And then provide information and samples of your work that will help your references illustrate what they will be writing about you.You are, in effect, helping to create your own profile, offering a more balanced portrait of who you are.Trust me, the professors will welcome your help (writing good recommendation letters takestime, and can be a challenge even for skilled writers). The more prepared my students were,when they requested a letter, the easier my task was, and the more effective my letter was.Let's say you want me to write a recommendation for you. Here is a helpful list of things you can prepare for me and your other references:A copy of your resume and perhaps of your transcript (the latter doesn't have to be official, it can just be a photocopy).A cover sheet highlighting salient details of your academic life - Which of my courses did you take, and when? What grades did you receive in each class? What is your overall GPA? What is your GPA in your major field? Did you take a minor, and if so, how will it enhance your graduate studies? This cover sheet could also contain that list of things you want me to be sure to address, in the letter.A term paper or long examination that I have graded (I cannot recall something I wrote on your paper two years ago, so jog my memory), or a story you wrote for the student newspaper, or a report you wrote after a semester's research in a laboratory.A copy of your personal "Statement of Purpose" essay that you will submit with your application. (I may wind up critiquing your essay, and helping you make your statement more compelling. This essay also should help me further understand why you have decided to go to graduate school, and in what field, and in preparation for which career.)A well-organized series of files, one for each graduate school where you will be applying.Each school will ask that I fill out a form, evaluating your potential for success in grad school. Before you give the form to me, fill out the portion that pertains to you (usually at the top of page one). Be certain that you write on the outside of each file which school is involved, where I am to send my letter (cite individual names, titles, if you can), and what my deadline is. Professors can be world-class procrastinators, they can be as fuzzy as cotton boll, and they often stay so immersed in their research and lectures that they cannot tell you what day it is. Help them - stress the deadline.If I am mailing the letter,give me a stamped, addressed envelope. If you are going to pick up my letter and mail it with your packet, I will seal it and write my name across the seal (grad schools require that). More and more schools are requesting online recommendations. Be sure I know which of your potential schools do that, and give me the proper URL, so I can find your electronic file and post my letter. For each file dedicated to one of the schools where you're applying, make it clear to me how that grad program differs from the others.Computers make it easy for professors to tailor their recommendation letters to fit the specific graduate program the student is pursuing.Make certain I have your telephone number and e-mail address, in case I need furtherinformation.Include a stamped self-addressed postcard bearing this message--"Please mail this card to me when you receive this letter" and I will drop that card into the envelope with your letter. That way, you can track the letter, and you need to do that until you know that all your letters have landed in the right hands.WHERE should copies of your recommendation letters be stored, for later use?Once your references have finished your letter, you might ask that they send a copy to your campus "Career Services Center," where you can establish a confidential credentials file. It can contain all your recommendation letters, a copy of your transcript and resume and other materials. Career Services (under whatever name, on your campus) will send out copies of your letters whenever you need them.You might also explore setting up a credentials file through a Web-based file management service called "" Once your credentials go online (including your recommendation letters, resume, writing samples, your "Statement of Purpose," whatever you need there), anyone whom you authorise can go and view your materials. Once you register with Interfolio, your reference letters can be sent there electronically, by professors and others, and often this saves them a lot of trouble. Interfolio offers an affordable way of sending your materials out to grad schools, and Interfolio will send out your portfolio either by UPS or electronically to whatever destinations you identify. The site assures confidentiality, and even you cannot access are commendation letter if a professor has asked that it be kept confidentialMost recommendation forms will ask you to sign a voluntary waiver that means you are surrendering your right to view the recommendations written on your behalf. Many professors feel uncomfortable writing an open letter, and some even balk at doing so, if you don't waive your rights to view the letters. Some grad school selection committees may weigh lightly any non-restricted letters in your application. So, waive your rights to read the letters. You can generally trust that letters produced by those who have agreed to help you will be positive (and,again, you can help see to that, by giving your references plenty of help once they agree to write a letter).So,now what?Well, now you owe a debt to each person who wrote a letter recommending you. Send each a Thank You note("I know how busy you are, and that your time is valuable, so I really appreciate your help...," etc.). This is a thoughtful gesture. This is also smart politics. You may need another such letter or assistance from the same references later. Speaking from 40 years of experience, I can tell you writing recommendation letters never got easier for me. More often than not, I spent two hours marshalling my thoughts and all the details into a persuasive letter.Like most professors, I wanted my students to succeed. Nothing made me happier than to have a student drop by to tell me that he or she got accepted at a good graduate school.I write a blog here: GREKindly bestow it some look if you find time to read more such things:)Regards

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