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Where are the descendants of Joseph Stalin and Vladimir Lenin?

Lenin and KrupskayaLenin had no children. His wife Krupskaya was childless.Stalin familyStalin had sons Jacob and Vasily and a daughter, Svetlana, and an adopted son, Artem.Here is more about the children of Stalin.Dzhugashvili, JacobDzhugashvili, Jacob Iosifovich (1907-1943) - the eldest son of StalinSince June 27, 1941, Jacob was in the active Soviet army: commander of the 6th artillery battery of the 14th howitzer regiment of the 14th tank division of the 7th mechanized corps of the 20th army, senior lieutenant. July 16, 1941 when leaving the encirclement near the city of Liozno, was captured by German Nazis. He refused to cooperate with the Nazis. Hitler wanted to exchange Jacob Stalin for Field Marshal Paulus, captured by the Red Army in Stalingrad, Stalin replied: "I don’t change a soldier for Field Marshal." On April 14, 1943, Jacob Dzhugashvili, a prisoner of the special camp “A” at the Sachsenhaus concentration camp, was shot dead by the SS sodate.Dzhugashvili, EvgenyDzhugashvili, Evgeny Yakovlevich (1936-2016) - Stalin's grandson. Soviet military scientist (engineer and historian), Russian and Georgian public and political figure. Candidate of military sciences, candidate of historical sciences. Professor. Retired Colonel (since 1991). Since 1996 - Chairman of the Society of Ideal Heirs Joseph Stalin (Georgia), since 1999 - Chairman of the National Patriotic Union of Georgia, since 2001 - General Secretary of the New Communist Party of Georgia In 2015, he published a book of his memoirs, “My grandfather Stalin”, In which he tells about some of Stalin’s relatives about his origin and the reasons for the false allegations against him. Some say that Eugene was killed but now all these assumptions are being removed from the Internet.Dzhugashvili VissarionDzhugashvili, Vissarion Evgenievich (born 1965) - Georgian director of documentaries. The son of the Soviet military historian Yevgeny Dzhugashvili, great-grandson of the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR Stalin. In 2000, he created the documentary "Jacob is the son of Stalin." In December 2002, he was beaten up by unknown persons at the entrance of a house in Tbilisi in Georgia, they demanded that he immediately get out of Georgia. Since 2003, he lived in New York, USA. He has two sons - Joseph (born 1994; named after Joseph Stalin), pianist and Vasily (born 2000) - economist.Dzhugashvili JacobDzhugashvili, Jacob Evgenievich (born 1972) - Georgian public figure, artist. Supporter of the idea of ​​responsibility of authorities to the people. The son of the Soviet military historian Yevgeny Yakovlevich Dzhugashvili (1936–2016), the grandson of Yakov Iosifovich Dzhugashvili (1907–1943) (the eldest son of Stalin), Jacob lives in Tbilisi with his wife Nina Lomkatsi and daughter Olga-Ekaterina. Since 2011, paintings by Jacob Dzhugashvili became available on the popular American site SaatchiArtDzhugashvili GalinaDzhugashvili, Galina Yakovlevna (1938-2007) - Stalin’s granddaughter; her husband is a citizen of Algeria Hussein bin Saad. Russian philologist, writer and memoirist. Candidate of Philology. Member of the Union of Writers of Russia. Researcher at the Gorky Institute of World Literature RAS.Dzhugashvili SelimSelim - Stalin's great-grandson; artist, lives in Ryazan, Russia.Stalin VasilyStalin, Vasily Iosifovich (1921-1962) - the second son of Stalin. military pilot fighter - officer. On the fronts of World War II (WW2) - from July 1942: commander of the 1st special air group of the 8th Air Army of the Stalingrad Front. Since February 1943 - commander of the 32nd Guards Fighter Aviation Regiment (Lyubertsy airfield) of the 210th Fighter Aviation Division, then - on the North-Western Front. He was wounded in the leg. Since May 18, 1944, having replaced Major General Aviation Ukhov, he becomes commander of the 3rd Guards Fighter Aviation Division as part of the 1st Guards Fighter Aviation Corps, Lieutenant General E. M. Beletsky. - The division under his command takes part in the hostilities for the liberation of Minsk, Vilno, Lida, Grodno, Panevezys, Siauliai and Jelgava.From the award sheet dated July 1, 1944, signed by the commander of the 1st Guards Fighter Aviation Corps Lieutenant General Aviation Beletsky: The division conducted 22 air battles per day, in which pilots destroyed 29 enemy aircraft (their losses were 5 aircraft). Guard Colonel Vasily Stalin has an excellent piloting technique, loves flying. Flies on all types of fighter aircraft. Personally involved in battles.Since February 22, 1945 - commander of the 286th Fighter Aviation Division of the 16th Air Army of the 1st Belorussian Front. Vasily Stalin takes part in the battle for Berlin. In one day of the battle for Berlin, Vasily Stalin's squadron carried out 949 sorties. Fifteen air battles were carried out, during which 17 Nazi aircraft were shot down. January 17, 1948 was appointed commander of the Air Force of the Moscow Military District.After the death of his father (March 5, 1953) Vasily Stalin by order of Khrushchev was to leave Moscow. Vasily Stalin did not obey the order. On March 26, 1953, Air Lieutenant General Vasily Stalin was fired into the reserve without the right to wear a military uniform.Vasily Stalin turned to the Chinese embassy with information that Stalin had been poisoned by Khrushchev and requested to leave for Beijing.Was arrested KGB Khrushchev on April 28, 1953 and charged with slanderous statements Vasily Stalin was sentenced to 8 years in prison. In prison, Vasily Stalin made disabled. January 9, 1960 was prematurely released from prison by Khrushchev.Khrushchev called him to his place and ordered either to speak ill of Stalin or not to say anything.On April 16, 1960, Vasily Stalin was again arrested by the KGB since Vasily Stalin again visited the Chinese embassy and spoke about documents about the poisoning of Joseph Stalin. For a whole year he was in Lefortovo prison. He was forbidden to live in Moscow and Georgia, as well as bear the name "Stalin", in his passport he was called "Dzhugashvili"The place of residence of Vasily Stalin is Kazan, which is closed to foreign citizens. It is believed that Vasily Stalin was poisoned by KGB agents. The official version has been poisoned by alcohol. in 1998, Kapitolina Vasilieva, his wife, who was present at his funeral, questioned the version of alcohol poisoning and said that there was no autopsy. Vasily Stalin did not support Khrushchev and was killed.Burdonsky AlexanderBurdonsky, Alexander Vasilievich (1941—2017) - Stalin’s grandson, the son of Vasily Stalin. Director of the Central Academic Theater of the Russian Army.Burdonsky NadezhdaStalin, Burdonsky Nadezhda Vasilievna (1943-1999) - Stalin’s granddaughter, the daughter of Vasily Stalin. Born and lived in Moscow; husband - Fadeev Jr. (1936-1993).Stalin, VasilyStalin, Vasily Vasilievich (1949-1972, buried at the Novodevichy cemetery in Moscow) - Stalin's grandson. The official version committed suicide while intoxicated. Unofficial version - Killed by KGB agents on the orders of Andropov.Alliluyeva, SvetlanaAlliluyeva, Svetlana Iosifovna (Peters, Lana; 1926-2011) - Stalin's daughter. Grew a spoiled girl. Already in high school she had love affairs. This did not please her father. Soviet translator, philologist, candidate of philological sciences; memoirist.In 1944, she married Grigory Morozov, a classmate of her brother Vasily. Subsequently, the marriage was dissolved.Joseph AlliluyevThe Son - Joseph Alliluyev became a cardiologist, a doctor of medical sciences.In 1949 she married Yuri Zhdanov. Yuri adopted Joseph, the first son of Svetlana. In 1950, their daughter Catherine.Catherine ZhdanovaDaughter - Catherine Zhdanova was born (now a scientific researcher of volcanoes in Kamchatka)Was in a civil marriage with Indian citizen Brajes Singh. Svetlana was afraid that Khrushchev would kill her as well as Vasily Stalin. Brajesh Singh was mortally ill and Svetlana knew this. She needed a reason to leave the Khrushchev USSR. After the death of Brajesh, Singh went to funeral in India and asked for political asylum in the United States. According to Svetlana, the CIA helped to travel to the United States and publish books of memories. The Soviet government accused the Indian Ministry of Foreign Affairs of collaborating with the CIA. The American ambassador to Delhi, Chester Bowles, took all the blame. Svetlana received millions of dollars for books. There are opinions of historians that Svetlana Alliluyeva wrote books as she was dictated and not herself.In 1970, she married the American architect William Peters, gave birth to a daughter, Olga Peters (Chrese Evans). Divorced in 1972, but retained the name Lana Peters.Svetlana moves to the UK. Next, Olga gives her daughter to a Quaker boarding school. Svetlana visits the USSR saying that he wants to see his children Joseph and Catherine. Not understanding why her abandoned children are not enthusiastic about the return of her mother, she again abandons them. Svetlana goes to Georgia. There Svetlana has many scandals with former friends. In 1986, Svetlana Alliluyeva returned with her daughter to the United States. Then she is in a nursing home in the United States and then in a monastery. Died of cancer. In November 2012, the FBI declassified the dossier of Svetlana Alliluyeva; from the documents it follows that the American intelligence services followed the life of Stalin's daughter in the United StatesOlga Peters (Chrese Evans)Stalin’s granddaughter, daughter of Svetlana Alliluyeva, Chris Evans, draws attention to herself on social networks. A real flurry of criticism was caused in 2016 by her punk rock photo shoot, where she posed in shorts, torn tights, a T-shirt with a target and a toy machine in her hands - in the image of an English comic book character. Chris is fond of piercings, her hair color and haircut changes almost every month, and she made a tattoo on her arm “Dear Mommy”.Sergeev, ArtyomSergeev, Artyom Fedorovich (1921-2008) - the adopted son of Stalin.Artem Sergeyev - major general of artillery, one of the founders of the USSR anti-aircraft missile forces, a participant in the Great Patriotic War. Born in the family of Fyodor Andreevich Sergeyev (underground nickname "Artyom") and Elizaveta Lvovna Sergeeva. After the tragic death of Artyom's father, his friend and colleague Joseph Stalin raised his family.Member WW2 Member of the defense of Stalingrad, the battle of the Dnieper, the battles in East Prussia, Hungary, Germany. In total, he had 24 injuries, including two severeAwarded 10 orders and 8 medals.After the war he served as regiment commander, then became deputy commander of the 1st Special Purpose Air Defense ArmyIn 2006, he published a collection of short stories and memoirs about the war, “Tales of the Gunner”.In 2006, co-authored with Catherine Glushik, published the book "Conversations about Stalin." He became a member of the Union of Writers of Russia.Honorary citizen of the cities: Borisov and Rogachev (Belarus), Fatezh (Kursk region), Bakhmut (Ukraine), Artyomovsk (Lugansk region, Ukraine), Artyom (Primorye), Raciborz (Poland)In the time of Khrushchev, information arose about the two illegitimate sons of Stalin. This is not documented.Alexander DavydovLidia Pereprygina, with whom 34-year-old Stalin (then still Koba) lived in Kureyka in the Turukhansk Territory, where he was sent to prison in 1914, Lidia Pereprygina, gave birth to son Alexander (1917). Then Lydia became a hairdresser in Igarka, married a local fisherman, Jacob Davydov, who adopted her Alexander. Alexander became a postman. Alexander Davydov fought, was wounded twice, rose to the rank of major. After the war, he worked as the director of a canteen in Novokuznetsk. He had three children.A document provided by Khrushchev which speaks of Stalin's secret son, many historians consider fake. In the first report, it was made not on the personal letterhead of the KGB chairman, but on the usual letterhead of the KGB of the USSR, then there is a confusion with the name Pereprygin called Perelygin, the year of birth of Alexander’s son is indicated not 1914, but 1917. It is also said that Perelygina told about the details of relations with Stalin and that she had a son who died in 1913. But this is a lie - Stalin arrived in Kureyka not in 1913, but in March 1914.That's probably all that I discovered and I hope you read and it was interesting to you.

What disgusts you?

If you have been living under a rock, the last few months/weeks/days, have been a doozie in the gymnastics community. (Each measurement of time being exponentially more of a doozie than the other.) This week is Larry Nassar’s, a disgraced doctor, sentencing hearing after he pleaded guilty to ten counts of criminal sexual assault. This man had been a Olympic doctor and also a professor at Michigan State University, where he also had a medical practice.You may think you know where this is going but I will not answer this question, yet.He was a doctor for many years. “A good one. No, a great one. The best.”, many who knew him would say. Not only could Nassar heal injuries, but it seemed like his warmth and kindness healed sorrow and disappointment that the challenging sport of gymnastics and many hours of training left behind. This was the perfect environment for a pedophile like Nassar to flourish and to manipulate children into giving him what he wanted. Their tired and hurt bodies stretched on table, without a parent in sight, he let his naked hands make their way under their pink and purple leotards and then inside their bodies where no one had ever touched them. But it seemed ok, right?Mommy and Daddy always said “To never let anyone touch you in your private parts, except for a doctor.”He was a doctor. He was nice. He said his treatments could make me feel better. He touched me and it made me feel weird but he was my friend and I trusted him. Again, this was the perfect environment.Among the 140+ women who have come forward into the public eye to say that Nassar had molested them too, most of them said that he treated them for lower-back and leg pain, a very common injury among gymnasts. So if a doctor, who you are told is the best doctor, a doctor that treated and healed injuries of Olympians, sticks his ungloved fingers inside of you to stop you from living in agonizing pain, you would trust his methods. If that same doctor gives you little gifts, tells you that you are beautiful and grooms you into become his friend, you would trust him. On top of that, a community of well-respected coaches and doctors trusted him, parents of gymnasts treated by him trusted him, even World Champions, Olympians and Olympic Champions. If I could name all the survivors, I would.In less than six months, five U.S. Olympic gold medalist and two World Champions, all women that I particularly admire, have come forward as victims of sexual abuse inflicted on them by Larry Nassar:Simone Biles, the most decorated U.S. gymnast, ever.Aly Raisman, six-time Olympic Gold medalist, two time Olympian and captain for Team USA.Gabby Douglas, first Black gymnast to win a Olympic gold medal and first All-Around gold medalist to return to the Olympics since Nadia Comaneci.McKayla Maroney, Olympic gold medalist, best vaulter in the history of gymnastics and two time World Champion.Maggie Nichols, World Champion in 2015, five time NCAA champion (only a sophomore) and best gymnast in the NCAA for 2 years straight.Jordyn Wieber, Olympic Champion and 2011 All-Around World Champion.Sabrina Vega, world team champion in 2011 that now competes in the NCAA for the University of Georgia.These women have accomplished so much but have all once fallen into the hands of a child molester, whose actions inflicted against more than one hundred women could have been prevented.In fact, In 2014, Michigan State University received a complaint against Larry Nassar, more than two decades after many survivors reported him first molesting them. But MSU decided to do nothing. They later reported him to the FBI but they didn't arrest him until two years later, for unrelated child pornography charges. And when he finally got caught for sexual abuse, the Head Coach of MSU’s NCAA Women's gymnastics team asked each one of her gymnasts to sign a card for Nassar saying that they are “Thinking of him and praying for him.” Lindsey Lemke, a recent public survivor and an MSU gymnast at the time, had signed the “Get Well Soon” card of the man that had molested her for years.At the same time of the FBI was investigating him from the MSU complaints, USAG also reported him to the FBI, also many weeks after the first complaint against him by Maggie Nichols. Both organisations were conducting separate “investigations” with the FBI without alerting anyone. Not the athletes. Not the parents. Not MSU to USAG or USAG to MSU.During those two years of “silence” from all three parties (USAG, MSU and FBI), Larry Nassar continued to abused girls in Geddert’s Twistars gym in Michigan in the name of medicine, at MSU in the name of medicine and at the USA Gymnastics National Team Training Facility in the name of medicine. It is possible that he continued to abuse gymnasts and children until the very day he was arrested.USAG fired him in late 2015, despite him posting on his social media that it was “his decision to leave”. The president of USAG was asked to resigned, and later received a severance package (of a million dollars), Marta and Bela Karolyi, idols in the gymnastics community that served as the head of the USA Women’s Artistic Gymnastics program for many years, retired. The head of the NCAA WAG program at MSU was fired. That is all. The rest of sexual abuse enablers are still employed and/or not in prison, including but not limited too Lou Anna Simon, president of MSU, Terin Humphrey, Olympian and “Athlete Representative” for U.S. WAG program, John Geddert, coach and owner of Geddert’s Twistars gym in Michigan where Nassar abused little girls and where Geddert shielded him.And I also should mention that Nassar’s Youtube, gymnasticsdoctor, channel is still up, with videos of him demonstrating (legal) medical techniques and stretching for gymnasts. In these videos, he touches minors in their pelvic region and buttocks.This negligence is proof that these organisations do not care about athlete safety, whether they are Olympians or just gymnasts at a small gym in Michigan. They care about their image, money and medals. USAG also releases “empty” statements when a new Larry Nassar Sexual Abuse case survivor comes forward. They all say the same thing but in different wording. I have read so many I feel like I can remember every statement word for word: We admire so-and-so’s bravery. We are deeply sorry that any athlete has been harmed during his or her gymnastics career by the horrific acts of Larry Nassar. We willing to work with so-and-so to create a safer place and a culture of empowerment. Bullshit, bullshit, bullshit. They do not even apologize. In other statements, they do not think they should be held accountable or always find a reason to excuse their past actions and to put the blame of someone else.This one is particularly disturbing, published by USAG to dismiss a case filled by a survivor against Larry Nassar, MSU and Twistars:Or this statement released, that I find unsurprisingly shocking, after Maggie Nichols, World and 5x NCAA champion, came forward last week:To finally answer the daunting question regarding the source of my disgust, given all the information stated above, I have come to the realization that I cannot choose between a sport organisation, a university or a child molester.This is what the world has become.

What was the cruelest weapon of war?

They all are let’s face it, but it is ironic what people will get upset aboutDuring ww1 Germans used poison gas however when Americans took this little device that today every god fearing beer swilling American keeps in their utility closet they went apeI kid you not this is true and I am going to bring it up because of the irony / Having been the first to unleash unrestricted submarine warfare, poisonous gas and the flammenwerfer, a one-man flamethrower, on their enemies, the Germans finally found a weapon too horrific for use during the Great War. It was the shotgun that American troops brought to the front in 1918.Sep 1, 2019World War 1 History: Germany Declares Shotgun Inhumane ...In the final year of World War I, the United States armed its forces on the Western Front with pump shotguns. Germany wasn’t pleased.Millions of combatants in World War I were killed by all manner of weapons, including aerial bombs, artillery, bayonets, hand grenades, pistols, revolvers, and rifles. The machine gun, the war’s most prolific killer, slaughtered untold thousands. Poison gas brought its own horrific casualties. Yet only one weapon—the pump shotgun American troops used beginning in 1918—led to a diplomatic protest. Ironically, the protest came from Germany, which during World War I had unleashed on its enemies such instruments of killing as the Zeppelin airship bomber, the Maxim MG-08 machine gun, the Type 93 U-boat, the Big Bertha howitzer, the Paris Gun, and, of course, chlorine gas.On July 21, 1918, German soldiers captured a U.S. soldier from the 307th Infantry Regiment, 77th Division, near Baccarat, France. He was carrying a weapon they had never seen: a Winchester Model 97 pump-action shotgun. On September 11, near Villers-en-Haye, the Germans captured a U.S. soldier from the 6th Infantry Regiment, 5th Division, who was also carrying a Winchester Model 97.On September 15, 1918, the German government officially protested the use of the shotgun in a note verbale—an unsigned diplomatic note—transmitted to the Spanish Embassy in Berlin, then to the Swiss Embassy, and eventually to the American legation in Berne, Switzerland. The note asserted that the use of shotguns by U.S. forces violated Article 23(e) of the 1899 and 1907 Hague Conventions and warned that any American captured with a shotgun or shotgun ammunition would be executed.Although Secretary of State Robert Lansing didn’t receive the note until sometime in October, he had become aware of the protest almost immediately. On September 19 Friedrich Oederlin, the Swiss chargé d’affaires in Washington, presented Lansing with a cablegram from the German government protesting the use of shotguns by American forces on the Western Front. “The German Government protests against the use of shotguns by the American Army and calls attention to the fact that according to the law of war (Kriegsrecht) every prisoner [of war] found to have in his possession such guns or ammunition belonging thereto forfeits his life,” the cablegram said. It, too, cited Article 23(e) and demanded a reply before October 1.Ansell then noted that he assumed the object of the protest was a pump shotgun described this way several months earlier in Scientific American magazine:When fired the new American gun sprays the contents of each shell over an area measuring nine feet horizontally and about three feet vertically, so that it is almost impossible not to hit a large number of enemy infantrymen coming to the attack in the typical mass formation of the Germans. As for the penetrating power of the buckshot, it is reported that during a recent test the hail of lead went through a two-inch plank with plenty of energy left for further damage, at 150 yards from the muzzle.Ansell finally turned to Article 23(e) of the Hague Conventions, which prohibited the use of weapons or ammunition designed to cause “unnecessary suffering.” That article was not aimed at “efficiency in killing,” Ansell argued, but against “cruelty and terrorism.” Invoking the German word schrecklichkeit, which means frightfulness or horror, Ansell pointed to saw-toothed bayonets, flamethrowers, and chlorine gas as examples of German weapons that caused unnecessary suffering.The Model 97 “trench shotgun,” as it quickly came to be known, was the brainchild of William G. Eager of Valdosta, Georgia, who had a degree in mechanical engineering from the University of Pennsylvania and was working as the general manager of a local lighting company. In September 1917 Eager prepared a full engineering report outlining his proposal—to modify the existing sporting shotgun in semiautomatic or pump models for use in trench warfare and shock action—and sent it to the War Department. A month later Major General Henry P. McCain, the army’s adjutant general, informed Eager that General John J. Pershing, the commander of the American Expeditionary Forces on the Western Front, had taken his idea under advisement. Just a couple of weeks later Eager got official word that, with Pershing’s enthusiastic approval, American soldiers in France would soon be armed with the modified shotguns. On April 20, 1918, American soldiers used them at Seicheprey, France, in the first significant U.S. infantry battle of World War I.The weapon was designed to give American troops an important edge in close combat, and it did just that. With a 20-inch barrel, sling swivels, and a bayonet lug, the 12-gauge shotgun also had a perforated metal heat shield that allowed soldiers to use the bayonet even when the barrel was too hot to hold. The shotgun accommodated six shells—one chambered (“in the spout”) and five in its magazine—each containing nine 00 buckshot pellets.A trained soldier using the Model 97 trench gun in slamfire mode—holding down the trigger while pumping—could unleash six blasts in a matter of seconds. Imagine 54 8.4mm buckshot pellets spraying laterally, with an effective range of up to 50 yards, and it’s easy to see why the guns also became known as “trench brooms” or “trench sweepers.”In June, at the Battle of Belleau Wood, the trench shotgun allowed American soldiers to literally mow down the advancing enemy troops. “That shotgun volley was new to them,” J. H. Hoskins, a captain in an American engineering company, told the Nashville Banner, his hometown newspaper. “Every time a gun fired three or four Germans would go down. The more the surprise gripped them, the closer they would huddle and the deadlier was the fire.”The German protest elicited mostly derision from American newspapers. This response, from the New York Sun, was typical: “It is hardly necessary to point out how ridiculous is this protest from a government that has used in war every foul means known to a foul mind. The inventors of poison gas objected to the use of a clean bullet!”The U.S. government also found Germany’s apparent hypocrisy a tempting target. In 1899, Ansell pointed out, Germany declined to back an effort by the U.S. delegation at the Hague to add to Article 23(e) a specific list of outlawed weapons and ammunition. The proposed language would have banned bullets that caused unnecessarily cruel wounds, such as exploding bullets and other projectiles designed to do more than take a man out of combat by killing or wounding him. Ansell argued that even if the language the United States proposed had been adopted, the shotgun would not have been outlawed, as its 00 pellets were the same size as .32 caliber bullets.Ansell interpreted Article 23(e) as requiring a comparison between the injury or suffering caused and the “necessities of warfare.” He summarized as follows: “An implement of warfare is not to be condemned because of its effectiveness to kill or to wound. It is to be condemned only when it wounds, or does not kill immediately, in such a way as to produce suffering that has no reasonable relation to killing or placing the man out of action for an effective period.”Ansell next compared the shotgun with other weapons. He wrote that it was designed to put more than one of the enemy out of action, just as shrapnel shells and machine gun fire do. He also noted that the diameter of a 00 shot was scarcely greater than that of a rifle or machine gun bullet, and that rifles and machine guns could cause more injuries and suffering than shotguns.“The protest is without legal merit,” Ansell concluded. “It would be ill-founded coming from an enemy whose conduct had evidenced the highest regard for the laws of war; coming from our present enemy, it is destitute of all good faith.”With Ansell’s memo in hand, Benedict Crowell, the assistant secretary of war (and a future president of the National Rifle Association), offered his own opinion about how the United States should reply. “I am at a loss to see any plausible basis for the protest,” he wrote, noting that the shotgun was an “ancient and approved” weapon that had fallen into disuse not because it was thought to violate the laws of war but because the changing nature of warfare had limited its tactical effectiveness. “The killing of combatants is not only lawful, but one of the chief means of warfare,” he wrote, “and no weapon can be objectionable merely because of its capacity to kill.”In his formal response to Germany’s protest, Secretary of State Lansing maintained that the shotgun the army used could not be the subject of “legitimate or reasonable protest” under the Hague Conventions. As for Germany’s threat to execute American soldiers captured with shotguns or shotgun ammunition, Lansing promised that the United States would “make such reprisals as will best protect the American forces.”The German government did not reply to Lansing’s letter, and no Americans are known to have been executed for carrying shotguns or for having shotgun ammunition. Fighting ended with Germany’s surrender on November 11, 1918—four months to the day after it discovered that Americans had brought shotguns into combat.Germany’s real reason for objecting to the shotgun was undoubtedly its brutal effectiveness. As Peter F. Carney, the editor of the National Sports Syndicate, noted in 1918, the gun carried “more terrors into the hearts of the enemy than any other instrument of destruction that has been used.” Carney went on to say that Eager, who by then was an officer in the U.S. Navy, “was in large measure responsible for the defeat of Germany’s armies.”In the 100 years since the protest, the U.S. government’s position with respect to the use of shotguns in wartime has never wavered. U.S. military forces used shotguns in World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, and even in post-invasion Iraq (to clear out suspected insurgent hideouts in house-to-house fighting). Germany’s protest against the weapon’s use in World War I not only proved ineffectual but was surely, to borrow Ansell’s characterization, “destitute of all good faith.”Charles A. Jones was a judge advocate in the U.S. Marine Corps from 1981 to 1992 and was in the Marine Corps Reserve from 1993 to 2011, when he retired with the grade of colonel. He lives in Greensboro, North Carolina.This article appears in the Winter 2020 issue (Vol. 32, No. 2)The 1918 Shotgun Protest ALL WAR IS CRUEL AND THE MORE MEAN AND MISERABLE THE ENEMY THE MORE HE WILL BITCH AND MOAN WHEN YOU GET THE UPER HAND , war is hell the pump did not get used on civilians or kids but armed germans often armed with these ironicallyThe MP 18 manufactured by Theodor Bergmann Abteilung Waffenbau was the first submachine gun used in combat. It was introduced into service in 1918 by the German Army during World War I as the primary weapon of the Sturmtruppen, assault groups specialized in trench combat. Although MP 18 production ended in the 1920s, its design formed the basis of most submachine guns manufactured between 1920 and 1960.MP 18 - Wikipedia it is not that Americans never did under handed things, the fact that we often claimed to be the good guys , the guys in the white hats, put us on the spot, almost always the people we fought did things far far more unspeakableBut we were the ones that got called out because we claimed we just didn’t do things like that , well of course we did we had to if we wanted to win , there is nothing civil about war, you show mercy once your enemy is on his knees and not until then

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