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## What should I know before starting my undergrad classes in physics?

I am not a physics major but I had to take the introductory calculus based classes of mechanics, electromagnetism, thermodynamics, and modern physics (consisting of quantum mechanics, relativity, and nuclear physics). I would love to double major in EE and physics but I don’t think that’ll be very productive since they are closely related. So I do EE academically and in a few years, professionally, and I do physics in my spare time.The toughest physics class in undergrad for me was mechanics. Although now its the easiest because of how straightforward daily mechanical phenomena are, it was once challenging because I had never applied calculus to physics and studied it so in depth. I took two semester of moderate Algebra based physics in high school and loved it, but it was more of a philosophy of physics and the history of science that fascinated me at the time, rather than calculation.Without further ado, here’s my advice and a summary of what you will learn, based on experience. Keep in mind, these will vary from college to college, but the core is the same:Mechanics - You will begin by studying simple kinematics. You’ll study the equations of motion under constant acceleration of the earth. You will solve projectile motion problems. You may, for the very first time see how the equations of motion are actually derived, using calculus. That’s where things get interesting and you see the beauty of mathematics and its effectiveness in applying it to physics, and other natural sciences.You will then study Newton’s laws of motion in depth. Don’t just memorize them. Understand them and their implications. When you see F = m*a, don’t just solve for F or a, anyone can do the math. Think about how you can measure those quantities. A good physicist is one that can come up with experiments and is constantly questioning assumptions and challenging them and putting them to the test.You will then study energy and work, and how you can simplify your life in solving problems such as roller coasters and drops in height by using the conservation of energy instead of calculating the force and acceleration at every turn. You will learn about momentum, which is an important concept.Then you will study uniform circular motion, simple harmonic motion such as simple pendulums (where all of the mass is at a point, connected to a wire or rope), possibly physical pendulums (where the mass is distributed throughout the length of the pendulum), rotational motion and torque. The nice part about rotational motion is that everything you learned about linear motion will translate to rotational motion, but with different symbols. From linear velocity you’ll go to angular velocity, from linear acceleration to angular acceleration. You will learn about moments of inertia and conservation of angular momentum and you will be able to explain why an ice-skater can increase and decrease her speed by merely moving her arms out and in. You will be able to explain why galaxies keep on rotating, why planets have elliptical orbits (requires Kepler’s laws, and law of universal gravitation).The next part will be systems of particles, elastic and inelastic collisions, wave mathematics (working with sinusoidal functions and how to set up parameters such as amplitude, frequency, wave number, etc).Electromagnetism: This class is by far the most interesting and the most disciplining class I’ve ever taken. It’s implications are truly eye opening and made me look at the world completely differently. I won’t spoil it for you and I’ll let you experience it on your own. I’ll tell you this though. The first three chapters are very tough because they are abstract and hard to visualize. Try to imagine the situations, predict behaviors, and apply known laws to find the answer. Understand the difference between the electric field and the electric force. Explain the similarities and differences of the gravitational force versus the electric force, and I mean really think about it and understand it!So master the following laws and techniques for the first few chapters: Coulomb’s law, which relates the magnitude of charges, their distance, and the force they exert on each other (good news, Newton’s laws apply here as well), Gauss’ law, which relates the presence of a charge inside a closed surface to the electric field it produces. Understand why the following statement makes no sense: “Find the voltage at point A.” when no reference ground is provided. Explain the relationship between the electric field and voltage, understand it very well, mathematically and physically (may use the del operator, which requires knowledge of multi-variable calculus, so brush up on that)After the introductory material of the course (the heart of it!), you will get into electric current and circuits. You will learn Kirchhoff’s current and voltage laws (another application of the conservation of energy). You will also learn about AC circuits later on, and phasors.Then one of my favorite parts of the course (can’t really say that because I loved every chapter). Magnetism! Understand and explain how static charges relate to electric field and how moving charges relate to magnetic fields. Understand that the magnetic force on a charged particle depends on its magnitude of charge, its velocity, and its orientation with respect to the magnetic field (practice right hand rule, same rule used in multi-variable calculus for cross products). You will then learn about induction, what runs our electric economies. Understand this very well. See Faraday-Lenz’ law of inductionThe last part of the course will connect everything together and unify electricity with magnetism through Maxwell’s equations. You will use four equations to describe the physical behavior of electromagnetic waves and understand that light is an electromagnetic wave. At this point you may start learning about geometrical optics, where the wavelength of light discussed is much smaller than any distance you’ll deal with, thereby no quantum mechanical phenomena will show up (interference, diffraction, that’s for later).Thermodynamics: You may start with universal gravitation or dive right into thermodynamics, depending on where you attend college. You will learn about the difference between heat and temperature, be able to explain which is the cause and which is the effect, and what are practical applications of it. Typical problems are thermodynamic equilibrium problems, in which two objects of varying temperature and mass are combined, and after a period of time they reach a particular temperature in between the temperatures of the original objects. You should do enough problems on this topic and understand it well enough to be able to make quick estimations of where the equilibrium temperature will be, given the masses and the original temperatures of the objects (very intuitive, if you drink coffee or ever enjoyed a bowl of soup)You will then begin talking pressure, fluids, buoyancy force and hydro-static equilibrium. Archimedes principle will help you interpret problems about whether some object will float in water or sink. Bernoulli’s principle will help you understand how air planes are able to fly through lift forces.Then you will study how different matter responds to heating other than their temperature going higher. Some matter change phases, pressure, volume, etc. You will learn about the ideal gas law relating the temperature, volume, and pressure of gas in ideal conditions (the behavior of a gas like Helium is beautifully approximated by this equation). You will learn about heat of transformation, which is how much energy you need to change the phase of some matter. You may learn about phase diagrams and triple points of matter.You will also learn about linear and volume expansion and begin to understand the considerations civil engineers need to make when building bridges, knowing they will expand and contract in different seasons. You will calculate the amount of expansion and possibly experiment with it in the lab.An important part of this course will be pV diagrams (pressure-volume diagrams) which is based on the ideal gas law, and explains the pV behavior of a given gas in different scenarios, where temperature is kept constant (isothermal), where pressure is kept constant (isobaric), where the heat into the gas is zero (adiabatic), where volume is constant. A common problem in this situation is getting the positive and negative signs correct when working with the work inputted into a system, and the heat generated.You will then learn the meat of the course, which is the second law of thermodynamics, explaining why we can’t have 100% efficient engines. You will learn about entropy and why some processes are reversible and others aren’t.Modern Physics: The course may be motivated by the first evidence of quantum mechanics and where Newtonian explanations go out the window. That is when you begin studying interference and the double slit experiment. You will see that even though light is made out of waves, it is also made out of particles (photons) shown by Einstein in his photoelectric effect experiment, for which he received a Nobel prize.What you need to understand at that point is constructive and destructive interference, and know the difference between interference and diffraction. Practical applications include diffraction gratings, and interferometers (which recently helped us in discovering gravitational waves and proving Einstein was right, black holes and mergers do lose orbital energy by emitting gravitational waves). Understand the diffraction limit and the Rayleigh criterion, which explains why in observing microscopic objects, there are some limits into what we can observe, and what the minimum angular separation of two light sources must be at a particular wavelength of light, for us to be even to distinguish the two sources as separate.You will then begin talking about Einstein’s special theory of relativity. Forget common sense, realize the implication of Einstein’s theory. Ask questions, look at the tested evidence for his claims (Muon decay, slowed down clocks at varying heights of the earth, etc). Understand that in relativity, it’s all about what you can observe, not how something really is independent of your observation, because how could you tell how something really is without observing it? You will learn about length contraction of objects as someone moves at higher and higher velocities, you will learn that the faster you move, the slower time ticks for you compared to other people’s clocks as YOU see them. Travel at half the speed of light for a year, come back to earth and you will be much younger than everyone else (you will learn how to calculate those numbers :) ).You will now talk about quantum mechanics and the discreet nature of particles. You will talk about Einstein’s photoelectric effect, de Broglie wavelength and matter waves, black body radiation and the ultraviolet catastrophe, Planck’s constant, Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, the Compton effect, Rayleigh scattering, and atomic spectra.You will then talk about wave-functions, which shift your perspective from determinism to probabilistic thinking. You will learn that you can’t talk about an electron’s position and momentum at the same time anymore (Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle) and that you will need to square the wave function to find the probability of finding the electron in a particular place. You will talk about quantum tunneling of electrons, infinite and finite square wells, the harmonic oscillator, and normalization of the wave function. You’ll get more in depth with all that and start talking about spin and space quantization.You may then talk about solid state physics and molecules and applications to transistor and semiconductor devices, type I and II superconductors, Meissner effect, band gap, etc.At this point you will talk about nuclear physics. You will understand the application of Einstein’s E = m*c^2 and what it implies with regards to fundamental particles when they are separate versus when they combine through the nuclear force and how energy and mass are really the same thing. You may begin to understand why stars collapse as soon as they produce iron in their cores. You will talk about alpha, beta and gamma decays.At this point you will talk about the electro-weak force, the early universe, quarks, dark matter, dark energy, particle physics, and the most relevant physics issues of the day, although you won’t get too in depth because the mathematics you know aren’t nearly sufficient to talk about today’s theories such as quantum field theory, string theory, etc.How to succeed in physics:Do problemsDo problemsDo problemsSolve problems in multiple ways and see them in different anglesExperiment, experiment, experimentDon’t just apply mathematical rules blindy on paper, think about how you will measure each quantity of interest, and what your uncertainties will beBe able to distinguish what’s worth pondering upon. Don’t spend your time thinking about the aether like I did. Unless you can come up with an experiment to prove or disprove your falsifiable hypothesis, don’t bother wasting time on some idea.Don’t try to be the lone genius. Work with others, discuss problems, look at their points of view, work on your communication skills. No matter how smart you are, if you can’t communicate your beautiful ideas efficiently and simply, no one will know what’s going on through your head, and when you die the world will lose truths to the universe that you never got to share because you focused on being a genius more than your communication skills!Do good on tests, but if you get bad grades don’t beat yourself up over it. As long as you love physics and you work hard, there shouldn’t be a problem. If you consistently get bad grades though, talk to someone, try to diagnose the problem exactly. Be analytical.There’s many more things, but I’ll end this now, too long already.Good luck in your journey!

## What are simple courses in the civil engineering subject?

Engineering MechanicsConcept of measurement of mass, force, time and space, system of units, Fundamental & Derived units, conversion of units, required accuracy of resultsGeneral Principles of static’s, Vector addition, subtraction and products,Resultant of distributed (linear & non linear) force systems,General conditions of equilibrium of co-planer forces, Laws of triangle, parallelogram and polygon of forces,Types of Beams, supports and loads, simple cases of axial forces, shear forces and bending moment diagrams,Problem involving friction on flat surfacesGeometrical properties of plane areasWork, energy, power, impulse, momentum, conservation of momentum and energyRectilinear and curvilinear motions, Tangential and normal components of Acceleration, Simple harmonic motionEngineering Mechanics LabRoof TrussTo find the various forces in various parts of wall craneTo verify the line of polygon on various forcesTo find coefficient of friction between various materials on inclined planTo verify the principle of moment in the disc apparatusHelical blockTo draw a load efficiency curve for a screw jackBooks RecommendedEngineering Mechanics4th edition by Irving H. shames, Prentice HallAsk a Question about Engineering MechanicsEngineering Mechanics Questions AnswersView LecturesLectures Notes of Engineering Mechanics - Coming SoonEngineering DrawingIntroduction:Drawing Instrument & their use.Types of lines & letters.ScalesDimensions & their Types.Planning of a Sheet.Types of Engineering Drawings.Geometric Constructions & Engineering Curves, Parabola, Ellipse & Hyperbola.Projections:Concept of Projection.Types of Projections, Orthographic Projection.1st Angle & 3rd Angle ProjectionOrthographic Projection of Points, Simple lines, simple planes & simple solids.Three Views of an object.Sectional Views.Isometric Views from given orthographic Views.Free Sketches. Of solid objects & building drawings.Building Drawings.Building symbols.Types of building drawings, proposed drawing, submission drawing, Working drawing & completion drawing.Introduction to Bridge Drawings.Engineering DrawingDrawing Exercises:Planning of sheet & practicing lines & letters.Orthographic Projections of given model, Sectional Views.Steel Structure Connections detail.Preparation of Plan, Elevation & Section of Single story simple buildings.Isometric & other three dimensional ViewFree Hand Sketches.Books RecommendedEssentials of Drafting by James D. Bethune.Engineering Drawing by N.D. Butt.Ask a Question about Engineering Drawing & DraftingEngineering Drawing & Drafting Q's n AnswersView LecturesEngineering Mechanics, 4th edition by Irving H. shames, Prentice HallComputer Applications in Civil Engg. & CommunicationsPart – A: Computer ApplicationsIntroduction to Computer HardwareIntroduction to Operating SystemsIntroduction to Word ProcessorsIntroduction to Spread SheetsIntroduction to Presentation SoftwarePart – B: Communication SkillsBrain Storming ProcessAnalysis of TopicAudience AnalysisSequencing the Presentation MaterialDetailing of MaterialPreparing ConclusionQuestion & Answer SessionsPreparation of Presentation in SoftwarePresentation to AudienceParticipating in seminars and interviewsPresenting Conference PapersBooks RecommendedMastering OfficeXP, by Gini CortrteCommunication Skills ,University of PhoenixAsk Question about Civil SoftwaresCivil Engineeirng Softwares AnswersView LecturesEngineering MechanicsApplied Linear AlgebraVector Algebra:Introduction to scalars and vectors, Vectors in the plane, Scalar and vector products, Lines in R2, R 3 and planes, Spheres, Orthogonal projections, Perpendicular distance from a point to a line and a plane, Vector spaces, Subspaces, Linear combinations, Linearly dependent and Independent set of vectors, Spanning of a vector spaces, Bases of a vector spaces and its applications in engineering and Business.Matrix Algebra:Introduction to matrices, Matrix operations, Inverse Matrix, Rank of a Matrix, Echelon form of a Matrix and its applications in our daily life situation problems, i-e in line-communication as Air-lines, Telephone-lines, Connecting cities by roads.Determinants:Determinants and its properties, Inverse of a matrix, Rank of a matrix, linearly dependent and independent by determinants.Linear system of equations:Independent, Dependent and Inconsistent system of equations and its graphical representation, Trivial and non-trivial solutions of homogeneous system of linear equations and its applications as linear models in Business, Economics, Science, Electric Circuits and other branches of engineering. Solution of linear system of equations by determinants and its applications as Leontief input-output matrix of the economy, Coding and decoding theory.Linear Transformations:Reflection operators, Projection operators, Rotation operators, Shear in x and y directions, Dilation and Contraction.Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors:Eigenvalues and eigenvectors and its applications as deformation, Markov processes as Mass-transit problems, Forecasting of weather and to develop the solution of the system of differential equations for mechanical system/electrical system and civil engineering, especially in public health engineering problems.Books RecommendedDavid C Lay, Linear Algebra and its Application,2nd Edition, Addison-Wesley Publication Jan 1998Ask a Question about Civil EngineeringCivil Engineering Questions AnswersView LecturesEngineering Mechanics, 4th edition by Irving H. shames, Prentice HallElectrical TechnologyPower Systems layout, generation, transmission, distribution and utilization of electric powerElectrical Elements and circuitsElectrical current, voltage, power, energy, Ohm’s law, inductance, capacitance, Kirchoffs laws. Introduction to node voltage and loop current methods.Principle of House wiring and Industrial wiringDiode Transistor and simple rectifier circuit.Electrical know how related to experimental design instrumentations like corrosion rate measurements, strain gauges, LDT’s LVDT’s. etc.Books RecommendedTheraja, B.L. Electrical Technology,S. Chand (21st or 26th edition)Ask a Question about Civil EngineeringCivil Engineering Questions AnswersView LecturesEngineering MechanicsSemester - 2 Syllabus & CoursesMechanics of SolidsSimple stress and strainTypes of stresses and strainsLoad extension diagram for different materialsHooke’s law, Modulus of elasticityLateral and volumetric strain. Poisson’s ratioTemperature stresses and compound barsTheory of torsion of solid and hollow circular shaftsAdvanced cases of shear force and bending moment diagrams for statically determinate beams. Relationship between Load, Shear and Moment.Theory of simple bending, Neutral Axis, Resisting moments and section modulus.Shear stresses in mono-symmetric beamsDeflection of beams by double integration, moment area and conjugate beam methodsMechanics of Solids LabInvestigation of Hook’s law that is the proportional relation between force and stretching in elastic deformation,Determination of torsion and deflection,Measurement of forces on supports in statically determinate beam,Determination of shear forces in beams,Determination of bending moments in beams,Measurement of deflections in statically determinate beam,Measurement of strain in a barBend test steel bar;Yield/tensile strength of steel bar;Recommended BooksStrength of Materials by Andrew Pytel & Ferdinand L. SingerMechanics of Materials by E.P. PopovAsk a Question about Mechanics of SolidsMechanics of Solids Questions AnswersView LecturesMechanics of Solids - Strength of MaterialsComputer Programming for Civil EngineersIntroduction to Programming & Visual BasicVisual Basic Code ComponentsData TypesVariablesControl StructuresProceduresArraysFile I/O operationsLabVisual Basic Code Components (program examples)Data Types (program examples)Variables (program examples)Control Structures (program examples)Procedures (program examples)Arrays (program examples)File I/O operations (program examples)Programming related to Civil EngineeringMatrix addition, subtraction and multiplication.Beam analysis program for simply supported, cantilever, Overhanging BeamProgram for finding resultant of forces and its angleProgram for stress analysis of composite barRecommended BooksVisual Basic 6 by Deitel & Deitel, T.R. NietoVisual Home Page by Deitel & Deitel, T.R. NietoAsk a Question about Engineering MechanicsEngineering Mechanics Questions AnswersView LecturesVB.Net for Civil EngineeringEngineering MaterialsCements, Ceramics, and Refractories:Manufacture, properties, and application of lime, cement, ceramic and bricksMortars and concrete, Pozzolanic material, effects of various chemicals on cement and concrete. Methods of protection, strength and test of building stone. Quarrying and dressing of stone.Timbers:Varieties and uses of important timbers, method of seasoning and sawing Decay, seasoning and preservation of timber, laminated materials.Glass and Plastics:Composition, varieties, properties and use of glass, plastic, laminates and adhesive.Metals:Composition and properties of ferrous and non ferrous metals used in civil engineering. Effect of various heat treatments on the properties of steel and its alloys. Corrosion and methods of corrosion control. Properties of thermal insulation material for use in buildings.Paints and Varnishes:Composition, preparation, properties, test and uses of paints, plasters, varnishes and distempers.Other Materials:Acoustical material and geo-textiles, properties and uses of asphalt, bitumen, rubber and asbestos, laminates and adhesive.LabGradation of coarse aggregateGradation of fine aggregateFineness of cementSetting timeNormal ConsistencyInitial Setting timeFinal Setting timeTensile Strength of BriquetteCompressive strength of mortar cubeSoundness test of CementDensity of CementSlump TestRecommended BooksNeville A. Properties of Concrete, English Language Book SocietySmith R. C. Material of Construction, McGraw-HillAsk a Question about Engineering MaterialsEngineering Materials Questions AnswersView LecturesEngineering Materials LecturesCalculusSingle Variable Calculus:Basic concepts of single variable function, Continuous, discontinuous and piecewise continuous functions, Periodic, odd and even functions, algebraic functions, Transcendental functions and its graphical representations, Applications of functions in our daily life situations.Differential Calculus:Limits and continuity, Interpretation of a derivative, Geometric interpretation, Total differential and its applications in our daily life situations, The use of a table of different type derivatives, Higher order derivatives, Tangents and normals, Approximation of a function at a particular point by Taylor's and Maclaurin's series, Maximum and minimum values of a function, The first derivative test, The second derivative test, Point of inflexion and its applications in business and engineering.Integral Calculus:Basic concepts of integration, A table of integral formulas, Some rules of integration, Definite integrals, The area bounded by a curve, Integration by parts, Integration as the limit of a sum, Volume of revolution, and its applications in our daily life situationsMultivariate Calculus:Basic concepts of multivariate function, Level curves and surfaces, Limits and continuity, Partial differentiation, Geometric interpretation, higher partial derivatives. Tangent planes, Total differential, Vector functions and its differentiation and integration, The directional derivative, The gradient, Scalar and Vector fields, Normal property of the gradient, Divergence , Curl, Tangent planes and normal lines, Extrema of functions of two variables, Second partials test, Extreme value theorem, Method of Constrained optimization and Lagrange multipliers.Recommended BooksRobert Davison, Addison Wesley, Mathematics for EngineersAntom, H. Calculus and Analytic Geometry, Johney Wiley and Sons.Toff and Mckay, Practical MathematicsS.A.H.Rizvi, Engineering MathematicsAsk a Question about Civil EngineeringCivil Engineering Questions AnswersView LecturesEngineering MechanicsEngineering GeologyIntroduction to GeologyImportance of Geology for Civil Engineering ProjectsPhysical properties and identification of common rocks forming mineralsRocks formation and classification:According to the mode of occurrencesAccording to the Silica contentsWeather and erosion:Weather classification, fresh, slightly weathered, moderately weathered etc.Discontinuity classification:Joints, faults and other fractures, micro structural features, such as lamination, cleavages, foliations, spacing of discontinuities as close, wide, medium etc,Description of Rock masses as thickly bedded or thinly beddedIdentification of filling in joints, sand clay and breccias etcColor of grains, description with respect to the rock color and identification as a course grained, hardness classification as soft with respect to testGeological classification and identification of Rocks by geological namesIdentification and subordinate constitutions in rocks samples such as seams or branches of other types of minerals for example, Dolomite, Lime stone, Calcareous sand stone, sand.Classification of Durability of Rocks in Dry and wet condition with durability testEngineering and physical properties of rocksGeological technical properties of rocks used as building stones, as a decorated stones and as a industrial rocks such as color, luster, streak, specific gravity, water absorption and unit weight etc.Brief Introduction to structural Geology:Plate Tectonics with respect to the global application, earthquakes, causes of earthquakes, protective measures against earthquakes and zoning of earth quakes in PakistanRole of geology in selection of sites for dams, reservoirs, tunnels and other civil engineering structuresBrief introduction of local geologyMechanics of Solids 2Analysis of stresses and strains at a point due to combined effect of axial force, shear force and bending momentMohr’s circle for stresses and strainsRelationship between elastic constantsTheories of FailureUnsymmetrical BendingShear Stresses in mono-symmetric beamsShear stress distribution in unsymmetrical beamsShear flow, shear center, concentration of stressesThick and thin walled cylindersAnalysis of curved beams and beams on elastic foundationShort eccentrically loaded columnsCore of a sectionRankine Gordon formula for intermediate columns, slenderness ratioEccentrically Loaded ColumnsInelastic behavior of beams in flexureShape factor of a section.Recommended BooksStrength of Materials by Andrew Pytel & Ferdinand L. SingerMechanics of Materials by E.P. PopovAsk a Question about Mechanics of SolidsMechanics of Solids Questions AnswersView LecturesSolid Mechanics LecturesConstruction Engineering & Graphics - Building Construction & Design + AutoCADBuilding Construction:Site Selection for a building, Orientation and Setting out for constructionLayout Techniques:Layout Techniques with special reference to buildings. Excavation in different types of soilsMasonry constructionTypes of stone and brick masonry; bonds in brick masonry, Alignments, Plumbs, leveling & cambering.Form workForm work for general in-situ construction, props, bracing and horizontal shuttering platforms.Damp proofing in building, Interior and exterior surface finishesVarious types of floors & roofing systems, planner & non-planer roofing system, roof treatments.Expansion joints and construction jointsWood work in building constructionOther Engineering Projects.An over view of construction aspects of different types of engineering projects, e.g. buildings, retaining structures, bridgesConstruction specificationCommon defects in building construction their causes and remedial measuresLabArchitectural Drawings, Structural Drawings, Plumbing and Electrical Work.Computer Aided Drawing (AutoCAD)General and basic know how related to computer aided drafting, e.g., coordinate system, drawing setup procedure, basic draw commands, basic edit commands; Layers, creating test and defining styles options, block and drawing import/export options; Cross hatching, save and plot (2D) and isometric drawings. Use of Auto CAD in drawing plans, elevation and section of single and double-storey buildingsStructural AnalysisINTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS:Definition of structure, types of structures: pin jointed and rigid jointed. Types of structural members. Types of beams, supports and loads. Stability of structures. Redundancy. Determinate and indeterminate structures, Degree of indeterminacy. Sign conventions for bending moment and shear force etc.ANALYSIS OF STATICALLY DETERMINATE RIGID JOINTED PLANE FRAMES:Definition. Analysis of determinate frames.ANALYSIS OF DETERMINATE PLANE TRUSSES:Definition and common types of trusses. Classification of co-planar trusses. Methods of analysis of trusses; Method of joints, Method of sections, Graphical method.ROTATIONS AND DEFLECTIONS:Deflection diagrams and elastic curves. Castigiano’s theorem for trusses beams and frames. Unit load method. Theorem of virtual work for trusses beams and frames.ARCHES:Definition. Linear arch. Eddy’s theorem. Three hinged parabolic and circular arch. Bending Moment and shear force diagrams. Influence lines for shear, thrust and moment.INFLUENCE LINES:Definition. Influence lines for statically determinate beams and paneled girders.Influence lines for reaction, shear and bending moment of statically determinate beams and paneled girders. Influence lines for axial forces in trusses. Influence lines for composite structures.TRAVELLING LOADS:Maximum bending moment and shear force at any section. Criterion for maximum moment and shear.Absolute maximum bending moment.CABLES AND SUSPENSION BRIDGES:Cables. Stiffened suspension bridges with three hinged stiffening girders.Shear force and bending moment diagrams.THREE MOMENT EQUATION:Derivation of 3-moment equation. Application of 3-moment equation to the analysis of indeterminate beamsLabsDemonstration of various types of structures and supports.Demonstrate the stability of structures using model structures.Determination of the horizontal thrust and maximum bending moment in a three hinged parabolic arches.Determination of the horizontal thrust and maximum bending moment in a two hinged parabolic arches.Determination of the deflections and rotations in overhanging beams.Demonstration of influence lineInvestigation of the buckling strutsDetermination of shear centeRecommended BooksWang, C.K. Intermediate Structural Analysis, McGraw HillWest, H.H. Analysis of Structures, John Wiley & Sons.Hibbeler, R.C. Structural Analysis, Prentice Hall.Ask a Question about Structural EngineeringStructural Analysis Questions AnswersView LecturesStructural Analysis LecturesTown Planning & ArchitectureArchitectureHistorical DevelopmentGeneral introduction to history of architecture; Emergence/Development of Islamic Architechure.InfluencesGeographical, climatic, religious, social, historical.PrinciplesTruth or purpose & beauty.QualitiesStrength, vitality, grace, breadth and scale.FactorsProportion, color and balance.Use of MaterialsStone, wood, metals, concrete, composites, ceramics.General Treatment to Plan of BuildingsWalls and their construction; Openings and their position, character and shape; Roofs and their development and employment; Columns and their position, form and decoration; Molding and their form decoration, Ornament as applied to any buildings.Town Planning DefinitionsTrends in urban growth; Objectives of town planning; Modern planning in Pakistan and abroad.Preliminary StudiesStudy of natural resources, economic resources, legal and administrative problems, civic surveys and preparation of relevant maps.Land Use PatternsVarious theories of land use pattern. Location of Parks and recreation facilities, public and semi-public buildings, civic centers, commercial centers, local shopping centers, public schools, industry & residential areas.Street PatternsLay out of street, road crossing & lighting; Community planningCity ExtensionsSub Urban development, Neighborhood Units, Satellite Town and Garden CityUrban PlanningIssues related to inner city urban design and emergence/up gradation of squatter settlements.Introduction to Urban & Regional Planning using GISRecommended BooksSnyter, J.C. Introduction to Urban Planning, Milwaukee McGraw Hill Book CoFletcher, S.B. A History of Architecture. The Athlone Press.Ask a Question about Town PlanningTown Planning Questions AnswersView LecturesTown Plannig Lectures - Coming SoonMechanical TechnologyBasics of ThermodynamicsThermodynamic systems,Laws of thermodynamics,Laws of perfect gasesEnergy equationInternal Energy, Enthalpy and entropy of the working fluidsPrime Movers:Internal combustion engines: type, working principle, cycle operation and performance,Steam EnginesSteam TurbinesAir-compressorsAir-Conditioning:Introduction to Air-conditioning and refrigeration. 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D'Alembert's solution of Two-Dimensional Wave equation with homogeneous and nonhomogeneous boundary conditions.Fourier Series:Periodic waveforms and their fourier representations, Calculating a fourier series, Fourier series of odd and even functions, Half range fourier series, Fourier series solution for the above p.d.equations.Recommended BooksKreyszig, E.Advanced Engineering Mathematics, Wayne and Erson.Abell & Braselton, Brooks /Cole, Modern Differential Equations, Second editionAsk a Question about Engineering MechanicsCivil Engineering Questions AnswersDownload Kreszig SolutionDifferential Equations SolutionsFluid MechanicsIntroduction to fluid Mechanics & its classification.History of fluid MechanicsApplication of Fluid mechanics in Civil Engineering.Distinction between solids and fluids.Physical Properties of Fluids:Density, Specific weight, Specific Volume, Specific gravity, Viscosity.Newton’s Law of viscosity. Surface tension. 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Transmission of Energy through PipesFlow through Open Channel:Uniform flow through open channels. Chezy’s and Manning’s formula for uniform Flow through open channels. Most efficient cross section of open channel.LabsDemonstration of various parts of Hydraulic Bench.Experimental Study of laminar and turbulent Flow.Experimental Study of tube gauges and Dead weight pressure gauges.Calibration of Orifices by Various Methods.Calibration of venturimeter.Calibration of Rectangular and Triangular Notch.Verification of Bernoulli’s theorem.Determination of Metacentric height.Study of Various losses through Piping arrangements.Recommended BooksRobert L.Daughetn, Joseph B. 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Analysis of multistory portal frames.Plastic AnalysisElastic versus Plastic Analysis in Steel Design, Upper & Lower Bound Theorems, Statical Moment & Mechanism Methods. Design of Beams, Propped Cantilever, Fixed ended & Continuous beams & frames, Design ExamplesAnalysis of ArchesAnalysis of two hinged circular and parabolic arches with supports at different levels.Influence Lines for Indeterminate BeamsUse of Clark Maxwell and Betti’s Theorm, Law of Reciprocal Deflections, Influence lines for moment and reactions in proposed cantilevers. Influence lines for support reaction of two and three span continuous beams. Influence lines for Shear Force and Bending Moment at any section of the beam.Recommended BooksWang, C.K. Intermediate Structural Analysis, McGraw Hill.West, H.H. Analysis of Structures, John Wiley 7 Sons.Hibbeler, R.C. 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Textural Classification by triangular chart, united soil classification system, AASHTO soil classifications.Permeability and SeepageDefinition, Hydraulic gradient, Darcy's Law, Factors affecting permeability, Permeability of stratified soils, Laboratory and field determination of coefficient of permeability.Seepage force, quick sand condition, flow nets, boundary conditions, graphical method of flow net construction, determination of quantity of seepage, two dimensional flow, Laplace Equation, seepage through earth dams, design of filtersCompactionDefinition, Compaction fundamentals, Moisture density relationships,Standard Proctor test and modified AASHO test for compaction, Factors affecting compaction, Compaction equipment, properties and structure of compacted soils, Specifications, field control and measurement of in-situ density, CBR test.Vertical stresses in soilsDefinition, stresses caused by self weight of soil, Geostatic stresses, stresses caused by point loads and uniformly distributed loads: Boussinesq and Westerqaard theories, Pressure bulb, stress distribution diagram on horizontal and vertical planes; stress at a point outside loaded area, Newmark’s charts and 2:1 MethodSoil ExplorationImportance of soil exploration, soil exploration methods; probing, test trenches and pits, auger boring, wash boring, rotary drilling, Percussion drilling and geophysical methods, soil samples, Disturbed and undisturbed samples, In-situ tests (SPT, CPT and PLT)Introduction of related SoftwareLabsIdentification of Soil (Visual Manual Procedure)Determination of Moisture content of soilDetermination of specific gravity of soilDetermination of liquid limit of soilGrain-size analysis of soil (including both mechanical and hydrometer analysis)Determination of Plastic limit and Plasticity Index of soilDetermination of shrinkage limit of soilClassification of soil according to AASHTO and USCSModified/Proctor Compaction TestConstant Head Permeability test (Granular Soil)Falling Head Permeability (Granular and Fine grained soils)

## Are photons made up of boson particles?

With respect to Sankranthi Pruthvi,Yours is a popular question,with unending arbitrary debates.You may know the story of ‘The Emperor's New clothes” where, The king was in his Royal procession through the streets, without realizing that he is not wearing any real clothes, but only the clothes of imaginations and illusions. No citizen from the public dared to alert nor to correct the emperor's folly, except a little Innocent pageant poor boy ignorantly. shouted “ Hai…the king is without any cloth !”.We,the lay people in science, are forced to follow and accept many fictitious theories helplessly.Hundreds of conflicting answers are in this very blog's page in Quora itself about this subject, is the testimony to it. One shall get tired of reading them all. There is no anonymity and uniformity.That proves that some how, some where, there is some thing wrong and a serious flaw in this subject.A conclusive theory must be undisputable and not debatedu like Pythagoras, Archimedes and Sir. Newtons laws of motions, Sir. Rutherford, Sir.Neill Bohr, Sir.J.J.Thompson, Sir Chadwick etc.empirically.The entire theories of light should be totally revamped and reconstructed empirically streamlined without fictionalized.The bosons, fermions and 61‘so many ions', are all falling in the categories of arbitrary, adhoc postulated hypothesis in particle physics. Not in the fundamental basic empirical pure physics.The bosons are being one of the unobservable, mysterious one. It is not clear whether it fits in the category of particle, substance, mass, energy, force wave or field, with it's evasiveness to be detected it in the conventional common home labs.The point about light is; Even, when a common stone when frictioned,or rubbed, throws out the sparks of light, and becomes the source of light. When it's fragments are released by force, or ejected in more than certain critical speed, or fired with super speed,it's micro dust is radiated and glows as lighted sparks. Here the question is, whether the invisible infra ‘light' which is already present in the vicinity of the space around, is triggered and enhanced or by the speed of dust in it's bath, Or the micro fast dust itself turned into light?In other words, the light appeared from the fragmental dust as spark is of passive or active functions? Direct or indirect act? That means, it turns into light or it stimulates some thing already present in it's surroundings into light, like how the fan stimulate the surrounding still air into a sensable active airflow.Which is the medium or the agent or the postman in between the spark and our eye?,There is no clear cut distinguished scientific definition still date for what is particle, matter, substance, mass, weight, energy, charge and field.When the boson is supposedly to be a supporting agent or a catalyze to enhance the weight(mass) of a massless substance (photons) during, it's(momentum) velocity. Then,why the boson as a particle can't be the light by itself,by replacing photons? Similar to the sparks in its higher mass and speed ?Though, we have advanced astoundingly in inventive technical applications,in many fields,like transports,aviation, and Telecommunication's with audio and video by harnessing , harvesting and utilizing the freely available ‘natural resource's like light, heat,electricity, magnetism, elements,and metals in applications. we are far away from fully understanding the natures of those resources ,such as gravity, light,heat,electricity magnetism and waves in pure fundamental science.Many theories in science are remaining as The Emperor's dictated dictums of decrees and remains as canonical laws,and as an ordinance to the scientific communities, in schools and educational institutions with Inconclusive complex confusions with underlying debates and comments unendingly. .If the school teacher or college's professor deviates from the text book's contents with his own view ,he should risk his livelihood, promotion, salary and; or,his job.Similarly, when a student answers on his own deviated thoughtful contention laterally, he stands to forgo his scores in his academy and risk to ruin his feature.Since, the present subject matter of the question now is of photons; ‘the light's,let us divulge here a bit on light only.As a lateral approach, This, present discussion here on light, in the beginnings, may, appear to be contradictory and irrelevant, imaginative, fictitious one, or as a waywardly waste,or as a lateral thinking, or a point to ponder, or a solution with some useful scientific points to consider.Or as a trash to be thrown into the dust bin.Yet it will remain as a humble contribution to the science ,willy nilly.Yet, it is a well privileged and worthy to chew with patience with perseverance. Since it is a well thought out discussion of concentrated, mental analysis .There fore, without rejecting or negating nor dismissing the following discussion, let us walk along mutually without any preconceived bias and prejudice with a neutral observation in order to arrive into an empirical conclusion.***We have four states of matters as,(a) solid, (b) liquid, (c) gas, and (d) plasma. We know that the unobservable universe is occupied by 99+x% of plasma alone with a mere 1-% of the rest left for the observable solid planets and it's matters in the solar systems comprised of Atoms, of Protons Neutrons, and Electrons.Here, before going further, we have to adhere with two main points as the base. for our further discussion.No. 1, In the universe, from the subatomic particles through the planets in the solar systems to the stars and galaxies throughout the cosmos, all are fully integrated, interlinked and interconnected in one way or others. And. Nothing is in isolation nor in solitude to anyone. But, interlocked with the common universal law irrespective of their micro or macro seize, mass, and distance.No. 2, All the existing beings, such as planets,particle, substance, matter or mass and particles, whether active or idle, barren, fertile, or deserted, all are playing their own specified active rolls in their combined and; or in their ‘independent States,’ effectively with equal importance. Nothing can be ignored as an unimportant and waste of trash.Similarly, The protons, electrons and neutrons too in their liberated free particle's state in their attuniated individual's states in slower Brownian motions diluted into the outer space from the plasmas by cosmic stroms, flairs and winds, spreaded and filled in the space all over predominantly.Similar to the air in our atmosphere, The free protons,free electrons, and free neutrons too, do not remain idle nor becomes as wsste trash , but plays their own rolls in their free individual States too.When a wheel rotates, it's axial remains idle at the middle. But, without the stationary axial,the wheel cannot rotate. And both are equealy important in their dynamic and statically idol States.*We all know about the plasma on the Sun's exteriors. It is basically, the liberated free protons,neutrons and electrons present throughout as an active jelly like subatomic particles paste. One football, or tennis ball sized cubical volume of plasma jelly is good enough to become the seize a planet of earth like an inflated balloon in atomic construction with it's spacious voids in between the electrons and protons along with neutron. The earth is the popcorns with 99+% of emptiness in atoms.The inherent tendency of the nature is, to strive to attain and remain in an equeliprium of masses distribution with their fields and forces in the space. when the stable equeliprium in distribution is disturbed, on the course of re-estabilizing the equeliprium, the ‘functions' and ‘actions', the dynamics begins and born. The universe becomes dynamics by only because by the interaction between the compressed and decompressed vacuume and void regions in the space to attain the stable equeliprium.Hence, the universal basic energy is the dynamic rush between the spacial fullnesses and void only.*The densely compressed subtance rushes towards the rarer vacuume void, and in converse, the vacuume space sucks the denser substance towards its void,is the Universal's common natural phenomenons. Here, the dilution and retardation from denser to rarer, plays the intermediate role to neutralize their imbalances towards the equeliprium.*Any substance of particles as a group , as liquid , gas, fluid when begins to rush liberally as a vagabond, it remains as the waywardly unrestricted flow of flood,wind or strom. When such flow of flood is streamlined and regularized ,systemized and disiplined, it becomes as field. and charge.*On the sun,The dense ‘plasma' of jelly like ionized free protons, the negative electrons and the neutral neutron particles with their field's relations present like the crowded honey bees on the honey comp,is violently striped ,shredded,thrown out and relinquished by the Sun's cosmic stroms , and violent flares into the outer space and thus the plasma is pumped and thrown into the space and gets diluted uniformly by muting and tamed and lulled in the outer space with the inherent tendency to settle in peace in equeliprium by dilution and in attuniated Brownian motion.Here,in order to proceed further in this subject, unless we agree, willingly or unwillingly, approvingly or disapprovingly, sceptically and hesitantly with a heavy heart,to accept or at least take it for granted half hearterdly for a movement, for a casual discussion's sake, at least to assume that “similar to how all the planets are packed with the atoms of .1%, as observable body, the rest of the whole space is filled with 99.9% of the remaining plasma containing free protons,free neutrons and free electrons from the sun and stars , as unobservable cold plasma of dark energies,as an on going process of dilution into the outer void space from the densest honeycomb like plasma from the thermonuclear reaction, spreads in the space as cosmic dilution by distributing the librated free electrons amongst others to remain in equeliprium of force , as an on going natural process.*Therefore, It is imperative for us, to give the at most importance to study about the 99.9% of inaccessible plasma’s of space, in par with the importance and attentions given by us to the mere .1% of the negligibly observable and accessible material visible bodies.*Now, thankfully after consenting and accepting that the dark space is occupied with the free cold electrons and others like a cold ocean allover from the hot thermal plasma .Since, the photons of light is the prime object in our present subject, let us begin the discussion empirically now on the light,“ The negate free electrons filled space ”.Fig. No.1 , 2. (every material's body is of electrons layers coated on its surface with their own specific surface vibrations.)The light:-1. It reflects,2.refracts,3.polarises, 4.interferes, 5.appears in colors, 6.instatinious in appearance and disappearance. 7. does not wets or soackes like heat, 9.dilutes with other colors, 10.mixes, 11.appears as thermal light and paradoxically as colder bio luminous light as well and neither cold nor hot 12.radiats in a straight line. (not considering the gravitational lens now). 13.it cannot be packed and transported or contained like magnet and heat. . 14. Does not spreads or soaked the materials like heat and water, 15. It does not penetrate through the solid bodies, like how the magnetic field crosses through and heat conducts. 16,it reacts chemically to nourish the green plants and like silver nitrates without any physical change unlike the thermal heat. 17, it creates the real and virtual images of the objects with micro nano information details with sharp border line. 18,it inducts electricity statically. 19, it has the inherent function of both the wave and particle duality to transfer the informations in pin point details. 20, and above all, only ,’the electrons presents for the discussion of any light related subjects; as in the cathode ray tube, in the television tube, and in the electron microscope,and wherever the light related function appears, the ‘Electrons' only, is by all means presents as the prime participant directly or indirectly. But not the proton or neutron.In any way, the electrons cannot be separated from light in some way or other. And there is no any other tangible particle in existence to connect suitably with light other than the Electron.Assuming that the free Electrons are distributed, and spreaded out filling in the space throughout. The electron being a negate particle, where even the neutral neutrons does not go near to it as how it clinks with the protons in atomic neuecli and as in gamma rays. With the surface tension too, the negating electrons won't and can't link and club with it's fellow electrons, but remains as keep away together freely with its groups in a disiplined birds in formations without any cohesiveness, but in the rebellious nature, as we all know and agree that “the ‘enmity' also has a strong negative ‘relationship'.” as friendship.As such, can the electron with it's ever negative nature, able to form a wave of it's own with its negative field of ungluing and disassociating,repulsive slippery nature ? Or only can generate a randomly incoherent seismic disturbance's pressure field of random vibrations ?The science has classified everything as positive, negative and neutral. But it failed to identify and categorize that in the wave too, similar to the common positive and negative magnetic and electric fields; water and air waves with their adhesive attractions of cohesiveness along with their surface tensions:*There must also be a ‘ ‘negative wave ‘ possible to exist. as a wave of utility to consummate with the negating particles like electrons grouped as photons in simple hormonic motion with their press , push functions with negative features like a thread like straight needle shaped relay wave vertically as pressure wave by relaying linearly. Or lpr - wave.( Linear Pressure Relay Wave)The positive waves are bonded with it's cohesive surface tension, collectively travels horizontally in longitudinal parrallal circles in successions, which can be clearly observable,Where as, the negative waves in it's repulsive act, propagates vertically in opposite direction with every quantised photon with it's simple hormonicmotion in rectilinear motion individually as a thread like needled form in straight line distancing apart in disassociating from each other in inverse square law linearly with Quite in opposite to the positive waves as linear pressure relay waves. lpr- wave.Fig. No. 3, (The light's wave is the rectilinearly pressure relayed wave. spreading apart in inverse square law)…Where, all the waves, both negative and positive, starts with it's final velocity without any initial increasing velocity of ‘0 -1–2 -3’ as in the usual dynamics, with it's compression latency of time delay to form the (initial)waves to begin and continue with the same uniform speed from it's initiation..This bullet like initial final velocity is the common factor to all kinds of waves,both in positive and negative waves. The wave is well disciplined and orderly by its natural virtue , While, the free solitary particles are neither disciplined nor orderly in it's behavioural functions and actions, like the giggling heat.This positive wave can be drawn as successive circles inclined around a point from it's gluing nature with surface tension. to animate as-Fig. No.4. (The positive waves with cohesiveness and surface tension the with the latency for the crest formation to begin with the final initial velocity.)On the other hand,the negative wave being formed by negative declination and repulsion, transferring the impact vertically in a fiber like wire distancing and pushing it's sidewise neighbours away, with it's repulsive negate nature and influencing by pressing only it's opposite particles in the straight pressure direction with a p- wave or pressure, relay wave. The information signal is formed as a electron bolus as quantisedFig. Nos.5, 6 and 7. (The imaginary illustration of the photonic wave wiith their simple hormonic motions).photons with a group of electrons as the wave crests as a thin fiber thread of linear waves as the electron relay wave, Where the information notes are transported similar to how the food bolus is made sphincteric by constriction and relaxation carried out linearly through our food pipe, gullet as peristaltic wave in earth warm like movement in different sizes of food bolus by oscillation.Fig. No.8 (The light wave is formed like the drumstick veg. in wired shape linearly)..The electron wave as the linear straight fiber nano rayons like with the photonic quantised balls as the wave crests and, the in between thinner thread as the trough of the wave in successions in various sizes of photons with varying distances in between as per the information it carries. Imaginatively, it must look like the ripe drumstick veg. with it's protruding seeds and a straight Rosary couplets with theFig. No. 10.( The light's wave similar to the Holy Rosary with the beads of photons and chains as the crest and troughs in the straight line with varied spased signatures.)quantised photonic beads arranged by the straight electron wave and the rays string, where the photon as the beads are the quantised wave's crests with intermittent thin string as the waves trough.The positive water wave can be illustrated as the circular wave rings spreads out horizontally in parrallal successions around the impact sources.On the other hand,the negative wave radiates vertically in rectilineal motion like peacock's umbrella by diluted in inverse square law,in it's two dimensional illustration.Thus we can conclude that the light is the ‘linear free electron's earth warm like fiber yearns like waves with it's bolus as the crest of photon quantum and the thinner link as it's troughs. Unlike the transverse or longitudinal but Rosary like linear wave. Neither by conduction, nor by convection nor radiation or piercing, but by press and relay action,like how the arrayed bicycles falls in the cycle stands in rows, and how the train's bogies jerks during the starting and halting linearly in succession.Fig. No. 11.(The pressure relay wave,or,PR-wave. The conservation of momentum. Sir.Isaac Newton's first law of motion in dynamics, He postulated that the light is of corpuscular particles, means the unattached cells. Which suites well with the photonic negative electrons grouped bolus).Now, let us see how the light gets reflected? (Pl. refer fig. no.1 and 2) We have vocally concluded that the light is negative lenier wave with the electron field as its medium. All the bodies of materials in existence are made up of atoms. and its Outer Shell being of Electrons, all the bodies are coated with the electron layer on its outer surface in other words,Fig. No. 12.(as per sir. Einstein and sir. de Broglie, the duality of light's photonic lump is manufactured without Conservation. Where we say that the photon of free electrons as the crest and the link as the troughs of light Wave.)practically all the bodies are coated with the electrons layer alone on their outer most surface with it's mesons field hovering over. In other words, the electrons only ogresses and occupies all the surfaces of the material bodies. Since the light is of the electron's photonic wave, as we have discussed, with it's negative field and on the bodies on which it falls, are also of electron layers with the same mesons field on their surfaces as a carpet. And hence, as “alike forces rebels and repels ”. the light wave is repelled back or reflected with the natural law. .We call it as the reflection, as the most common occurrence of light.Fig. No. 13 and 14.( The law of reflection “ the angle of incident and reflection are applicable commonly to all bodies in motion.)Secondly,in the law of reflection;- ” the angles of incident and reflection are equalled ”, is not only specific to light alone but applicable to all bodies in motion as trajectories in any angle to the target,are all obeying the same law irrespectively.When we through a steel ball of 100% stencils strength to the steel body of the same stencils strength in an angle,it bounces back with the same angle of impact. Here,the momentum towards the ‘x' axis and ‘y' axis are conserved .when the motion of the ball with same mass in ‘x’ axis is bounced back ,the ‘y'axis in parallel drags it with the same speed in its original angle in the opposite direction.Hence, such an action is the common universal factor to all the objects in their momentum including light.The transparency, transmition and refraction of light:- Is another important but with paradoxical behavior to light's other features of reflection ,vanishing , vanquishing and dispersing by opacity.a) All the material's bodies are having their own specific surface vibrations with their electron layer of their own on their surface. The light's photons waves are neither passes nor penetrates through the solid transparent glass, but only being relayed by it's atoms and molecules. Similar to the athletes in the relay race, the baton is relayed in succession, where the entering first athlete does not emerges at the end, but a different athlete at the end with with the original i baton.Similarly,the wave's signal is relayed , through the arrays of the inbuilt atomic formations ,in a suitable short route found by the p-wave, to relay by deviating it's direction in conjunction with the density of the medium's angle of atomic array.How do we see through the glass? We send the light through and receive the light across the glass beyond only passively, not directly. When we post the letter in London's post box,some strange postman delivers it in Chennai. Here, only the content is relayed passively, not the person who posts.We have seen that all the bodies are of with their own surface vibrations varied from zero to infinitive, resulting from their nature of atomic and molecular setup's. Similar to the settled water at rest in a bowl against the intense boiling restless water. The body of lesser surface vibration near to zero, accepts the external wave as pressure wave and passes it on to its next atom or molecule till the end.Similarly, as the surface vibrations developes, from zero towards infinitive, the outer photons layer bigins to repel back the falling photons, beginning with black, gray, colors, white, intense shiny and on a polished surface with the critical frequency, it turns into reflecting mirror rectilinearly.The material become tansparant as glass Only by the recreation of light by the glass's other end. The surface pulsation on its opposite side by the (linear pressure relay) lpr - waves from the atmospheric’s free electrons on its side..When photon transfers the impact to the glass surface,where the glass surfaces is pressed by the photons, and relays it to the next atom as p - wave, to the subsequent atoms in the glass until the last end by the Newton's cradle as p- waves,or what we call as pressure wave, and the still Brownian electrons of atmosphere are triggered by the glass's surface vibrations at the other end and emerging out as secondary light, regenerated by the relayed wave pulse s with it's pressure. Where the atomic arrays of the transparent material decides the refractive index with faster speed. Not slower. This goes well with Sir. Newton's first law of motion with the conservation of momentum with corpuscular of light's photons. Thanks and salute to Sir. Newton.Fig. No. 14 (Newton's cradle of pressure linear wave. In transparency,similar to the three stationary middle balls,the glass slab transfers the light pulse by only relying by it's atomic and molecular structures to the other side to trigger the atmospheric electrons, similar to the ball at the left end ). .The apparent nearness, latency of the object on the base is equivalent to the square root of the distance between the real and inclined refracted waves to the normal on the ‘y' axis on the ‘ appeared latency on the ‘x' axis. to the normal.Finally, our discussion will remain incomplete without discussing the light's photon's mass and weight at it's speed of 300,000 km./sec.An electron's rest mass is fractionally 1836 times lesser to proton. The photon is the group of electrons as bolus on the thin wired linear p- wave of light.But here, though, the waves are in a linear motions, where the medium never moves with the waves, but is alwayes in a stationary state in oscillatory motion only. Hence, the mass's exertion exists is in the vertical direction only on it's crest and trough, not in the horizontal direction of the stationary medium in its combined mass..Hence, the force of the mass of the light wave at the the speed of 300,000 km/sec. c, is just equal to the rest mass of the single photon only in an negligible mass of electrons , that too in oscillatory stationery smothering mother's bosom touch motion to deposit the informations. But, not in a colliding injurious action with an increased heavy weight with mass × velocity equation.The mass of the wave in motions is totally different from the mass of a particle in motion. The impacts of water falls is different from the water wave at the same velocity. Hence, when the wave in motion,it cradles,when the particle in motion it crumbles. Therefore, the mass of light at 300000 km./sec. is just equal to the rest mass of the electrons only as a quantised photon particle of electrons.However, when an electron itself as a particle, when travels individually in the speed of light as a trajectory, it turns into the lethal beta radiation with penetrative force with millions of electrons mass. Hence,The mass of the ‘wave' remains as same as the rest mass of it's medium, irrespective to its velocity with its vertex osculation in it's stationary state.Whereas, when a ‘body' or ‘particle' with it's rest mass, in a speed , ‘gains' it's mass in multiples to it's velocity in proportional to the rate of it's displacement as an individual entity like the fired bullet.In case of light ,with it's dual natures of both particle and wave, the photon bolus of electrons is purely a spot to spot localaised manifestation, never in a displacement state, but in stationary granular negating oscillatory state only, with the least rest mass of a single photon itself at it's destinations irrespectively.In essence, our present discussion goes very well in harmony with the same lines of our earler fathers of science Sir. Issac newton and Sir.Cristiaan Huygens,in 16th cetuary.Sir. Newton named it as ‘corpuscular' meaning unattached negating cell. ( those days, the electron with the same negate nature was not known to Sir. Newton.) Sir. Huygens's principle of wave theory. Then Sir. Thomas Young proved with his double slit experiment in the year 1803 about the light's wave nature. Sir Max Plank in 1900 claimed that the light is of finite packets of quantum's,and also he claimed that the photons are not conserved but created. Sir. Einstein in 1905 declared that light is of both of packets and wave natured. In a way our discussion fully endorse,conforms and totally follows their pioneering views to fill some leftover blanks by our dots only. We are only joining our elder scientists laborious thoughts in a correct sequence. All our discussions are in perfect line with them.The points we discussed so far, for our empirical conclusion are:1. There are two kinds of waves as positive wave with attractive act and negative wave with repulsive functions. 2)What is the content of the photon's packets ? 3.What medium the light wave is of ? 4. What is the mass of the medium of light's wave?As we know that the mass of the water wave is (1) one only at all amplitudes and frequencys in the still water. 5.What kind of category the light wave belongs to? Whether positive or negative? And 6.In what mode the light wave probacates to deliver the details in pin point accuracies? Longitudinally, transversely or rectilinearly relayed? Where the former two are dismissed and the third one is considered and empirically confirmed. 8. The duel nature of light's wave with pockets of photons particles are discussed as an empirical possibility in the Rosary's shaped linear negative p- wave relay. Any rejection, with equal substitution is welcomed to continue.We have touched all these points and discussed with constraints. To sum up:-1 ) The light is the wave of free electrons as it's medium as it's quantised photons Boulez with every photon in simple harmonic motion linearly with pressure relay waves in the opposite direction to it's impact.. 2.) It is an yearn shaped threaded hair likei wave with linear earthworm like motion. It is not a transverse wave. but linear relay wave 3 ) It travels faster in denser medium as a pressure wave like Newton's Magical Cradle of steel balls. 4 ) The photon at the speed of light at 300,000 km/sec. .has the same mass of electron's rest mass of electrons beads. 5 )All the materials surface are of the negate electron's meson as film coat on their top enabling the light of electron wave to repel and reflect. 6 ) The light does not travels through the glass, but relays its wave pulses by pressure waves, to the opposite surface, which in turn, triggers the atmospheric electron into light. 7 ) the space is filled with the free elementary particles as cold plasma.*The transparency and the transmission of light:-fig.15.Fig.No.15. (Similar to the athletic relay race, the baton is relayed by many intermediates ahnd emerging out. Not the athlete. Similarly, the photon which strikes the entering surface is not emerging out from the other end, but only the information signature by a differe nt light wave manifested fromtfphoton.)Thanking you. Merry Xmas and Happy New Year. 25–12–2018.M John Xavier.

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- Lab 8: Simple Harmonic Motion